Chelidonium majus L. (family Papaveraceae), or greater celandine, is an important plant in western phytotherapy and in traditional Chinese medicine. Crude extracts of C. majus as well as purified compounds derived from it exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities (antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antitumoral, analgesic, hepatoprotective) that support some of the traditional uses of C. majus. However, herbal medicine also claims that this plant has several important properties which have not yet been scientifically studied: C. majus is supposed to have diuretic, antitussive and eye-regenerative effects. On the other hand, C. majus also has scientifically proven effects, e.g. anti-osteoporotic activity and radioprotection, which are not mentioned in traditional sources. Moreover, recent controversy about the hepatoprotective versus hepatotoxic effects of Chelidonium majus has renewed the interest of the medical community in this plant. This review is intended to integrate traditional ethno-medical knowledge and modern scientific findings about C. majus in order to promote understanding of its therapeutic actions as well as its toxic potential.
The total antioxidant capacity of plasma was increased, despite high levels of oxidative stress, in patients with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes. Increased levels of copper and caeruloplasmin characterized the diabetic milieu, despite an absence of chronic complications.
IntroductionAtypical antipsychotics have significantly improved the quality of life for schizophrenic patients. Despite their beneficial effects, these antipsychotics induce weight gain, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. The aims of this study were to investigate the antioxidative activity of paraoxonase and assess lipid profile as a cardiovascular risk factor in patients with schizophrenia under long-term clozapine or risperidone treatment.MethodsThe study included 66 patients with schizophrenia under clozapine or risperidone treatment and 19 healthy control subjects. Serum paraoxonase activities against paraoxon (PON(PO)), phenylacetate (PON(PA)), dihydrocoumarin (PON(DHC)), serum Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity (TEAC), antioxidant gap (GAP), and lipid profile were determined.ResultsPON(DHC) activity was reduced in both antipsychotic drug-treated groups (clozapine 43.46 ± 1.06 U/ml, p < 0.001; risperidone 50.57 ± 1.54 U/ml, p < 0.01; control 52.27 ± 1.34 U/ml). A similar pattern was observed for the PON(DHC)/HDL-cholesterol (HDLC) ratio. On the contrary, PON(PO) and PON(PA) were increased in the treated group, but the corresponding paraoxonase/HDLC ratios were not significantly different from controls, except for PON/HDLC in the clozapine group. TEAC and GAP were only decreased in the clozapine-treated group.ConclusionsIn patients with schizophrenia, clozapine or risperidone treatment had different effects on various paraoxonase activities. The results of the present study suggest that patients with schizophrenia might be at increased risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease related to reduced PON(DHC), TEAC, and GAP.
Chronic joint inflammatory disorders such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis have in common an upsurge of inflammation, and oxidative stress, resulting in progressive histological alterations and disabling symptoms. Currently used conventional medication (ranging from pain-killers to biological agents) is potent, but frequently associated with serious, even life-threatening side effects. Used for millennia in traditional herbalism, medicinal plants are a promising alternative, with lower rate of adverse events and efficiency frequently comparable with that of conventional drugs. Nevertheless, their mechanism of action is in many cases elusive and/or uncertain. Even though many of them have been proven effective in studies done in vitro or on animal models, there is a scarcity of human clinical evidence. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available scientific information on the following joint-friendly medicinal plants, which have been tested in human studies: Arnica montana, Boswellia spp., Curcuma spp., Equisetum arvense, Harpagophytum procumbens, Salix spp., Sesamum indicum, Symphytum officinalis, Zingiber officinalis, Panax notoginseng, and Whitania somnifera.
Chronic joint inflammatory disorders such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis have in common an upsurge of inflammation, and oxidative stress, resulting in progressive histological alterations and disabling symptoms. Currently used conventional medication (ranging from painkillers to biological agents) is potent, but frequently associated with serious, even life-threatening side effects. Used for millennia in traditional herbalism, medicinal plants are a promising alternative, with lower rate of adverse events and an efficiency frequently comparable with that of conventional drugs. Nevertheless, their mechanism of action is in many cases elusive and/or uncertain. Even many of them have been proved effective in studies done in vitro or on animal models, there is a scarcity of human clinical evidence. The purpose of this review is to summarise the available scientific information on these joint-friendly medicinal plants, which have been already tested in human studies: Arnica montana, Boswellia spp., Curcuma spp., Equisetum arvense, Harpagophytum procumbens, Salix spp., Sesamum indicum, Symphytum officinalis, Zingiber officinalis, Panax notoginseng, Whitania somnifera.
It is known that cigarette smoking is correlated with medical associated inquires. New electronic cigarettes are intensively advertised as an alternative to conventional smoking, but only a few studies demonstrate their harmful potential. A cross-sectional study was designed using 150 subjects from Brasov (Romania), divided into three groups: non-smokers (NS = 58), conventional cigarettes smokers (CS = 58) and electronic cigarettes users (ECS = 34). The aim of this study was to determine levels of some plasma lipophilic and hematological components, and the total antioxidant status that could be associated with the smoking status of the subjects. Serum low density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol increased significantly for ECS participants versus NS group (18.9% difference) (p < 0.05). Also, the CS group is characterized by an increase of serum LDL cholesterol (7.9% difference vs. NS), but with no significant statistical difference. The variation of median values of serum very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) was in order NS < ECS < CS, with statistical difference between NS and CS groups (34.6% difference; p = 0.023). When comparing the antioxidant status of the three groups, significant differences (p < 0.05) were obtained between NS vs. CS and NS vs. ECS. Similar behavior was identified for CS and ECS. Statistically significant changes (p < 0.0001) for both vitamin A and vitamin E were identified in the blood of NS vs. CS and NS vs. ECS, and also when comparing vitamin A in the blood of the CS group versus the ECS group (p < 0.05). When all groups were compared, the difference in the white blood cell (WBC) was (p = 0.008). A slight increase in the red blood cell (RBC) count was observed, but with no statistical difference between groups. These results indicated that conventional cigarette and e-cigarette usage promotes the production of excess reactive oxygen species, involving different pathways, different antioxidants and bioactive molecules.
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