The paper reports a study of the post‐acquisition integration process in three foreign acquisitions made by Swedish multinationals. Detailed interview data and questionnaire responses in both acquiring and acquired firms are presented. The sub‐processes of task integration and human integration are separated out and it is shown that effective integration in these cases was achieved through a two‐phase process. In phase one, task integration led to a satisficing solution that limited the interaction between acquired and acquiring units, while human integration proceeded smoothly and led to cultural convergence and mutual respect. In phase two, there was renewed task integration built on the success of the human integration that had been achieved, which led to much greater interdependencies between acquired and acquiring units.
This study investigates the antecedents of psychic distance. Building on original data in 25 of the world's largest economies, we investigate potential drivers of the perceived distance among a given pair of countries. Results confirm that psychic distance is indeed a multifaceted construct which is determined by cultural, geographic and economic factors. Furthermore, our results indicate that geographic distance accounts for the largest share of the explained variance, suggesting that future studies should attribute geographic distance a more prominent role when it comes to empirically investigating international business decisions for which psychic distance perceptions may be important. They also suggest that, used in isolation, cultural distanceas measured by the so called Kogut and Singh index -is a poor predictor of distance perceptions.
A large number and wide variety of lake ecosystem models have been developed and published during the past four decades. We identify two challenges for making further progress in this field. One such challenge is to avoid developing more models largely following the concept of others ('reinventing the wheel'). The other challenge is to avoid focusing on only one type of model, while ignoring new and diverse approaches that have become available ('having tunnel vision'). In this paper, we aim at improving the awareness of existing models and knowledge of concurrent approaches in lake ecosystem modelling, without covering all possible model tools and avenues. First, we present a broad variety of modelling approaches. To illustrate these approaches, we give brief descriptions of rather arbitrarily selected sets of specific models. We deal with static models (steady state and regression models), complex dynamic models (CAEDYM, CE-QUAL-W2, Delft 3D-ECO, LakeMab, LakeWeb, MyLake, PCLake, PROTECH, SALMO), structurally dynamic models and minimal dynamic models. We also discuss a group of approaches that could all be classified as individual based: superindividual models (Piscator, Charisma), physiologically structured models, stage-structured models and traitbased models. We briefly mention genetic algorithms, neural networks, Kalman filters and fuzzy logic. Thereafter, we zoom in, as an in-depth example, on the multi-decadal development and application of the lake ecosystem model PCLake and related models (PCLake Metamodel, Lake Shira Model, IPH-TRIM3D-PCLake). In the discussion, we argue that while the historical development of each approach and model is understandable given its 'leading principle', there are many opportunities for combining approaches. We take the point of view that a single 'right' approach does not exist and should not be strived for. Instead, multiple modelling approaches, applied concurrently to a given problem, can help develop an integrative view on the functioning of lake ecosystems. We end with a set of specific recommendations that may be of help in the further development of lake ecosystem models.
The purpose of this work is to establish an erosion-transportation-accumulation diagram for fine recent deposits on lake bottoms and to show empirically that an understanding of the bottom dynamic processes is of vital importance for a proper interpretation of sediment data.The potential maximum effective fetch (PFefl) has been used to indicate the available water energy, and the water depth has been used to ind~cate the effectiveness of the PFetion the bottom. The 50% water content of surficial sediments, 0-1 cm, has been utilized as a physical sediment parameter to distinguish erosion from transportation and the 75% water content to separate transportation from accumulation.Relationships between water content, bulk density, and grain size are discussed. The distribution pattern of different elements (Be, B, V, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Hg, Pb, Bi, P, and N) in the sediments of Lake Vanern is interpreted in the light of the bottom dynamic processes.On se propose dans cet article d'etablir un diagramme erosion-transport-accumulation pour. les dep8ts lacustres fins recents et de montrer empiriquement que la comprehension des processus dynamiques des fonds lacustres est d'importance vitale pour une interpretation valable des donnees ~Cdimentologiques.On utilise la course effective potentielle maximale (PFeff) pour indiquer I'energie disponible et la profondeur de I'eau pour Cvaluer I'efficacite de PFeti sur le fond. On choisit une teneur en eau de 50% pour les sediments superficiels, jusqu'a 1 cm, comme parametre physique des sediments pour distinguer erosion et transport et une teneur en eau de 75% pour distinguer transport et accumulation.On discute aussi les relations entre la teneur en eau, la densite totale et la granulomttrie.Les patrons de distribution dedifferents elements (Be, B, V, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Hg, Pb, Bi, P et N ) dans les sediments du lac Vanem sont discutis et interpret& en regard des processus dynamiques des fonds lacustres.
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