Resumo O contexto brasileiro de desigualdades sociais e barreiras no acesso aos serviços de saúde pode agravar a situação da pandemia de COVID-19, que já afeta todos os estados da federação, com a curva crescente de aumento de casos confirmados e mortes. O governo dos países e os agentes do campo científico têm buscado evidências para as melhores práticas de prevenção e controle da transmissão, e cuidado da infecção e doença, incluindo medidas de diagnóstico, tratamento e de atenção à saúde. A estratégia de testagem em larga escala, visando o diagnóstico precoce, quarentena dos casos leves identificados, bem como dos contactantes, e cuidado adequado dos casos graves, tem sido revisada e indicada como uma das medidas eficientes para o controle da pandemia em vários países do mundo. O artigo tem como objetivo discutir os desafios da testagem e do diagnóstico de COVID-19 no Brasil.
Introduction:Periodic monitoring of sociobehavior characteristics at a national level is an essential component of understanding the dynamics the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic worldwide, including Brazil.Methods:This paper compares descriptive sociobehavior characteristics in 2 national cross-sectional HIV biological behavioral surveillance surveys (BBSS) conducted in 2009 and 2016 among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Brazil. Respondent driven sampling (RDS) was used for recruitment in both years. Overall proportions were weighted according to Gile's estimator using RDS Analyst Software and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for comparisons between the 2 periods. Further comparisons were stratified by age groups (<25 and 25+ years old).Results:Overall, 3749 and 4176 MSM were recruited in 2009 and 2016, respectively. In 2016, participants were younger than 25 years old (58.3%), with 12 or more years of education (70.4%), with higher socioeconomic status (40.7%), and had a higher proportion of whites (31.8%), as compared to 2009. Also, participants in 2016 reported less alcohol use and binge drinking, but used illicit drugs more frequently. There was an increase among MSM who self-reported their HIV risk as low and had low HIV knowledge while the proportion of those who were never tested for HIV dropped from 49.8% in 2009 to 33.8% in 2016. Although more than three-quarters received free condoms in both years, STD counseling remained low (32% and 38% for 2009 and 2016, respectively). Sexual risk behavior remained at high levels, especially unprotected anal receptive sex and sex with multiple partners. Younger MSM (<25 years old) showed riskier sexual practices than those 25+ years old, when comparing 2016 to 2009.Conclusions:Our results indicate a worrisome risk behavior trend among Brazilian MSM, especially among younger ones. These results can contribute for a better understanding of the HIV epidemics in Brazil, with timely shift in strategies so improved effectiveness in public health prevention efforts can be achieved.
Introduction: High level of HIV/AIDS knowledge is required for an effective adoption of preventive strategies. Objective: To assess HIV/AIDS knowledge among men who have sex with men (MSM) in 12 Brazilian cities. Methods: Respondent-Driven Sampling method was used for recruitment. HIV/AIDS knowledge was assessed by Item Response Theory. Difficulty and discrimination parameters were estimated, and the knowledge score was categorized in three levels: high, medium, and low. Logistic regression was used for analysis. Results: Among 4,176 MSM, the proportion of high level of knowledge was 23.7%. The following variables were positively associated with high knowledge (p < 0.05): age 25+ years old, 12+ years of schooling, white skin color, having health insurance, having suffered discrimination due to sexual orientation, having had a syphilis test, and having received educational material in the previous 12 months. Exchanging sex for money was negatively associated. Conclusions: The proportion of only 23.7% of high HIV/AIDS knowledge was low. We should note that the only potential source of knowledge acquisition associated with high level of knowledge was receiving educational materials. Our study indicates the need for expansion of public prevention policies focused on MSM and with more effective communication strategies, including the development of knowledge that involves motivation and abilities for a safer behavior.
IntroductionDiscrimination related to gender identity may directly influence vulnerability to HIV through increased exposure to unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI). Little is known about the relationship between gender-based discrimination (GBD) and URAI with stable partners among transgender women.MethodsThis mixed-methods research began with a cross-sectional survey conducted between 2014 and 2016 with transgender women in Salvador, the capital city in one of the poorest regions in Brazil. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit the study population. GBD was defined through Latent Class Analysis. Additionally, 19 semi-structured interviews with participants were transcribed and analyzed through thematic content analysis.ResultsURAI with stable partners was commonly reported (37.3%). GDB was positively associated with URAI among stable partners (OR = 6.47; IC 95%: 1.67–25.02). The analysis of the interviews illustrated how GBD impacted transgender women in diverse ways. Experiences with GBD perpetrated by the family often initiated a trajectory of economic vulnerability that led many to engage in survival sex work. The constant experience with GBD contributed to participants feeling an immense sense of trust with their stable partners, ultimately diminished their desire to use condoms. Further, the high frequency of GBD contributed to poor mental health overall, though some participants said engagement in transgender advocacy efforts provided a vital source of resilience and support.ConclusionOur mixed-method study capitalizes upon the strengths of diverse data sets to produce a holistic understanding of GBD and URAI with stable partners. Furthermore, by confirming the association between greater GBD and URAI, we have demonstrated how GBD can impact condom negotiation in diverse relationships.
This study examines the primary health care (PHC) organization in response to the COVID-19 epidemic. This is a descriptive study based on the document analysis of the countries’ responses to the coronavirus pandemic with emphasis on PHC. In various countries, there have been different organizations and impacts of strategies since they have conducted actions according to the local characteristics of disease transmission, demography, public health services organization, and health system’s capacity and financing, especially in the PHC area. A significant change during the pandemic has been the increase in telephone and video consultations incorporating health information technology. An efficient PHC, guided by essential actions, achieves more suitable results. Also, each country’s cumulative capacity or experience makes the difference facing the emerging demands on different health systems.
OBJECTIVE To estimate self-reported discrimination due to sexual orientation among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Brazil and to analyze associated factors.METHODS A cross-sectional study of 3,859 MSM recruited in 2008–2009 with respondent driven sampling. Data collection conducted in health centers in 10 Brazilian cities. A face-to-face questionnaire was used and rapid HIV and syphilis tests conducted. Aggregated data were weighted and adjusted odds ratio estimated to measure the association between selected factors and self-reported discrimination due to sexual orientation.RESULTS The sample was predominantly young, eight plus years of schooling, pardo (brown), single, low-income, and identified themselves as gay or homosexual. The prevalence of self-reported discrimination due to sexual orientation was 27.7% (95%CI 26.2–29.1). Discrimination was independently associated with: age < 30 years, more years of schooling, community involvement and support, history of sexual and physical violence, suicidal thoughts, and unprotected receptive anal intercourse.CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of self-reported discrimination among MSM in Brazil is high. These results challenge the assumptions that MSM-specific prevention and support programs are not required or that health professionals do not need special training to address MSM needs.
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