Context. NGC 6558 is a bulge globular cluster with a blue horizontal branch (BHB), combined with a metallicity of [Fe/H]≈-1.0. It is similar to HP 1 and NGC 6522, which could be among the oldest objects in the Galaxy. Element abundances in these clusters could reveal the nature of the first supernovae. Aims. We aim to carry out detailed spectroscopic analysis for four red giants of NGC 6558, in order to derive the abundances of the light elements C, N, O, Na, Al, the α-elements Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, and the heavy elements Y, Ba, and Eu. Methods. High-resolution spectra of four stars with FLAMES-UVES@VLT UT2-Kueyen were analysed. Spectroscopic parameter-derivation was based on excitation and ionization equilibrium of Fe I and Fe II.Results. This analysis results in a metallicity of [Fe/H] = −1.17 ± 0.10 for NGC 6558. We find the expected α-element enhancements in O and Mg with [O/Fe]=+0.40, [Mg/Fe]=+0.33, and low enhancements in Si and Ca. Ti has a moderate enhancement of [Ti/Fe]=+0.22. The r-element Eu appears very enhanced with a mean value of [Eu/Fe]=+0.63. Ba appears to have a solar abundance ratio relative to Fe. Conclusions. NGC 6558 shows an abundance pattern that could be typical of the oldest inner bulge globular clusters, together with the pattern in the similar clusters NGC 6522 and HP 1. They show low abundances of the odd-Z elements Na and Al, and of the explosive nucleosynthesis α-elements Si, Ca, and Ti. The hydrostatic burning α-elements O and Mg are normally enhanced as expected in old stars enriched with yields from core-collapse supernovae, and the iron-peak elements Mn, Cu, Zn show low abundances, which is expected for Mn and Cu, but not for Zn. Finally, the cluster trio NGC 6558, NGC 6522, and HP 1 show similar abundance patterns.
Context. NGC 6522 is a moderately metal-poor bulge globular cluster ([Fe/H] ~ −1.0), and it is a well-studied representative among a number of moderately metal-poor blue horizontal branch clusters located in the bulge. The NGC 6522 abundance pattern can give hints on the earliest chemical enrichment in the central Galaxy. Aims. The aim of this study is to derive abundances of the light elements C and N; alpha elements O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti; odd-Z elements Na and Al; neutron-capture elements Y, Zr, Ba, La, and Nd; and the r-process element Eu. We verify if there are first- and second-generation stars: we find clear evidence of Na–Al, Na–N, and Mg–Al correlations, while we cannot identify the Na–O anti-correlation from our data. Methods. High-resolution spectra of six red giants in the bulge globular cluster NGC 6522 were obtained at the 8m VLT UT2-Kueyen telescope with both the UVES and GIRAFFE spectrographs in FLAMES+UVES configuration. In light of Gaia data, it turned out that two of them are non-members, but these were also analysed. Spectroscopic parameters were derived through the excitation and ionisation equilibrium of Fe I and Fe II lines from UVES spectra. The abundances were obtained with spectrum synthesis. Comparisons of abundances derived from UVES and GIRAFFE spectra were carried out. Results. The present analysis combined with previous UVES results gives a mean radial velocity of vrhel = −15.62±7.7 km s−1 and a metallicity of [Fe/H] = −1.05 ± 0.20 for NGC 6522. Mean abundances of alpha elements for the present four member stars are enhanced with [O/Fe] = +0.38, [Mg/Fe] = ≈+0.28, [Si/Fe] ≈ +0.19, and [Ca/Fe] ≈ +0.13, together with the iron-peak element [Ti/Fe] ≈ +0.13, and the r-process element [Eu/Fe] = +0.40. The neutron-capture elements Y, Zr, Ba, and La show enhancements in the +0.08 < [Y/Fe] < +0.90, 0.11 < [Zr/Fe] < +0.50, 0.00 < [Ba/Fe] < +0.63, 0.00 < [La/Fe] < +0.45, and −0.10 < [Nd/Fe] < +0.70 ranges. We also discuss the spread in heavy-element abundances.
Vegetative aerial organs are considerably more exposed to environmental conditions and can reflect the specific adaptations of plants to their local environment. Aldama grandiflora species are known to be widely distributed in Brazil; therefore, individuals from different populations of this species are thought to be exposed to different abiotic and biotic conditions. Several anatomical studies conducted on Brazilian Aldama species have mainly focused on the qualitative anatomical characters or traits of these species, but not on their quantitative traits. In this study, we evaluated whether climate and soil conditions can change the morphometry among individuals of A. grandiflora collected from six sites in the Goiás State, Brazil, by assessing their anatomical characters. Further, soil sampling was performed, and climate data were collected from all the six sites. The analysis indicated few statistical differences among the populations evaluated, showing that A. grandiflora presented consistent leaf and stem anatomical characteristics. The small morpho-anatomical differences found among individuals of the different populations evaluated, reflected the soil conditions in which these populations were grown. Therefore, environmental factors have a significant influence on the morpho-anatomy of Aldama grandiflora.Keywords: cerrado, Compositae, morphometry, phenotypic plasticity, leaf anatomy. Condições climáticas e de solo podem alterar a morfo-anatomia entre indivíduos de diferentes localidades? Um estudo de caso emAldama grandiflora (Asteraceae) ResumoOs órgãos vegetativos aéreos estão consideravelmente mais expostos às condições ambientais e podem refletir as adaptações específicas das plantas ao seu habitat. A espécie Aldama grandiflora é amplamente distribuída no Brasil e, dessa forma, indivíduos de diferentes populações podem estar expostos a diferentes condições ambientais. Vários estudos anatômicos realizados com espécies brasileiras do gênero Aldama têm abordado, principalmente, as características anatômicas qualitativas dessas espécies, mas não em suas características quantitativas. Neste estudo avaliamos se as condições climáticas e do solo podem alterar a morfometria entre os indivíduos de A. grandiflora coletados em seis populações do Estado de Goiás. Foram avaliados os caracteres anatômicos foliares e caulinares, além da amostragem do solo e coleta de dados climáticos, para os seis locais. A análise indicou algumas diferenças estatísticas entre as populações avaliadas, mostrando que A. grandiflora apresentou características anatômicas foliares e caulinares bastante consistentes.As pequenas diferenças morfo-anatômicas encontradas entre indivíduos das diferentes populações avaliadas, refletiram as condições do solo nos quais essas populações se desenvolveram. Assim sendo, fatores ambientais relacionados ao clima e condições do solo têm uma influência significativa sobre a morfo-anatomia de Aldama grandiflora.
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