We hypothesized that in Toxoplasma gondii infection, communication among immune cells promotes neuroinflammation through cytokine networks and induces pain sensitivity under conditions of neuropathic pain. The animal model of Toxoplasma infection was established by the intraperitoneal inoculation of 20-25 tissue cysts from Tehran strain of T. gondii to BALB/c mice. Amitriptyline (20 mg/kg, i.p., 1/day) administrated to animals for 7 days before behavioral tests. Pain behavioral tests including tail flick, hot plate, and formalin test were evaluated in all the groups. The mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 were examined by real-time PCR. Results revealed that T. gondii induce hyperalgesia in the infected mice, whereas amitriptyline showed a promising effect against the hyperalgesia induced by Toxoplasma infection. The mRNA levels of the aforementioned cytokines significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the infected mice compared to the uninfected ones. Obtained findings suggested that T. gondii infection could promote neuroinflammation through cytokine networks and induced hyperalgesia in BALB/c mice, whereas amitriptyline as an analgesic drug reverses them.
is an aromatic spice (cardamom) native to the humid Asian areas, which contains some compounds with a potential anticonvulsant activity. Various pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects have been related to this plant. This research was conducted to examine the probable protective impact of the essential oil and methanolic extract of against chemically (pentylentetrazole)- and electrically (maximal electroshock)-induced seizures in mice. In addition, neurotoxicity, acute lethality, and phytochemistry of the essential oil and methanolic extract were estimated. The TLC method showed the presence of kaempferol, rutin, and quercetin in the extract, and the concentration of quercetin in the extract was 0.5 µg/mL. The major compounds in the essential oil were 1,8-cineole (45.6 %),-terpinyl acetate (33.7 %), sabinene (3.8 %), 4-terpinen-4-ol (2.4 %), and myrcene (2.2 %), respectively. The extract and essential oil showed significant neurotoxicity in the rotarod test at the doses of 1.5 g/kg and 0.75 mL/kg, respectively. No mortalities were observed up to the doses of 2 g/kg and 0.75 mL/kg for the extract and essential oil. The essential oil was effective in both the pentylentetrazole and maximal electroshock models; however, the extract was only effective in the pentylentetrazole model. The study suggested that methanolic extract had no significant lethality in mice. Both the essential oil and methanolic extract showed movement toxicity. Anticonvulsant effects of were negligible against the seizures induced by pentylentetrazole and maximal electroshock.
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