Various factors have been reported to influence lipid metabolism and cause metabolic syndrome. However, the influence of allergy on the liver that plays important role of lipid metabolism has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of allergy on lipid metabolism of liver. A model of atopic dermatitis was developed in the NC/Nga mouse using picryl chloride to induce allergy. Lipid metabolism parameters were measured and the mechanism of changes in these parameters was examined using DNA microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Triacylglycerol accumulation was promoted in the liver in the mouse atopic dermatitis model despite reductions in food intake, body weight gain, and serum glucose. As this mechanism, it was thought that atopic dermatitis caused the suppression of fatty acid β-oxidation. These results suggest that atopic dermatitis causes lipid accumulation in the liver.
Summary Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a collective term used for fatty acids with a conjugated double bond that are geometrical and positional isomers of linoleic acid. Antiobesity and anti-cancer properties, an immunopotentiation effect, and promotion of bone formation by CLA have been shown in cell culture and animal studies. A mixture of 9c11t-and 10t12c-CLA is now used as a health food supplement after testing in clinical trials. These trials focused on improvement of lipid metabolism by CLA, whereas few studies have examined absorption and metabolism of CLA in humans. In addition, there is no report concerning absorption and metabolism of CLA in Japanese. This study was designed to examine CLA concentration in blood, the elimination rate of CLA, and metabolic differences between 9c11t-CLA and 10t12c-CLA in blood in Japanese who ingested CLA (about 2 g/d, equal weights of 9c11t-CLA and 10t12c-CLA) for 3 wk. Blood samples were collected 1 wk before the 3-wk period, on the first and last days of the period, and 1 wk after the end of the period, and the CLA concentration and distribution in blood were investigated. The CLA concentration in blood was significantly increased by CLA ingestion and reached 36 mol/L. The CLA concentration in blood one week after the intake period was significantly lower than that at the end of CLA intake. The 10t12c-CLA level in plasma decreased faster than that of 9c11t-CLA. This suggests faster metabolism (fatty acid ␤ oxidation) of 10t12c-CLA compared with 9c11t-CLA. Key Words conjugated fatty acid, CLA, conjugated linoleic acid, metabolism, human Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a collective term used for fatty acids with a conjugated double bond that are geometrical and positional isomers of linoleic acid. CLA isomers with conjugated double bonds at positions 7 and 9, 8 and 10, 9 and 11, 10 and 12, and 11 and 13 are known, with the main natural CLA isomer having a 9-cis, 11-trans configuration (9c11t-CLA). Anti-obesity and anti-cancer properties, an immunopotentiation effect, and promotion of bone formation by CLA have been shown in cell culture and animal studies ( 1-4 ). A mixture of 9c11t-and 10t12c-CLA is now used as a health food supplement after testing in clinical trials ( 5-7 ). These trials focused on improvement of lipid metabolism by CLA, whereas few studies have examined absorption and metabolism of CLA in humans. However, animal studies suggest greater accumulation of 9c11t-CLA than 10t12c-CLA in vivo ( 8-10 ).Safe and effective use of CLA requires information on absorption and metabolism in humans. In this study, we measured CLA concentrations in blood, the rate of elimination of CLA, metabolic differences between 9c11t-and 10t12c-CLA, and CLA distribution in blood in healthy subjects who ingested CLA (about 2 g/d, equal weights of 9c11t-and 10t12c-CLA) for 3 wk. Blood samples were collected before and after the 3-wk period. The CLA concentration in blood increased after CLA ingestion, and decreased at one week after intake compared with at the end of CLA inta...
ObjectiveThe continuous increase in the number of patients presenting with late-onset myasthenia gravis (LOMG) underscores the need for a better understanding of the clinical course and the establishment of an optimal therapeutic strategy. We aimed to clarify factors associated with clinical outcomes in LOMG.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the clinical profiles of 40 patients with early-onset MG (EOMG) (onset age: 49 years or younger), 30 patients with non-elderly LOMG (onset age: 50–64 years), and 28 patients with elderly LOMG (onset age: 65 years or older) and compared the subgroups according to onset age and thymus status. The evaluated parameters were MGFA classification before treatment, MG-ADL score, complicating diseases, antibody titer, treatment, and MGFA post-intervention status.ResultsElderly LOMG patients showed transition to generalized symptoms at a higher frequency and underwent thymectomy less frequently than EOMG and non-elderly LOMG patients (p < 0.001). The frequencies of crisis and plasmapheresis were significantly lower in thymectomized LOMG patients without thymoma than in thymectomized LOMG patients with thymoma or non-thymectomized LOMG patients (p < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively). However, the outcome was not significantly different. All of the thymectomized LOMG patients without thymoma presenting with hyperplasia or thymic cyst had a favorable clinical course.ConclusionsOur study showed that elderly LOMG patients are more prone to severity, suggesting that they require aggressive immunomodulatory therapy.
Background: Among the elderly, the rate of complications resulting from malnutrition is high. A mini nutritional assessment short‐form (MNA‐SF) was confirmed overseas to identify malnutrition and predict clinical outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the MNA‐SF usefulness in Japanese small‐sized hospital.
Methods: This was a prospective cohort study conducted on hospitalized patients at small‐sized hospital, Department of General Internal Medicine which has 30 beds. All consecutive hospitalized patients for 4 months were included. A MNA‐SF assessment on admission was implemented as exposure factor. Primary outcomes included death and complications such as infectious disease, organ failure, delirium, falls, diagnosis of malignancy and poor oral intake. Secondary outcomes including days of hospitalization and discharge rate back to home were also measured.
Results: 177 patients were analyzed with the MNA‐SF assessment. Twenty‐three (13%) patients were “normal nutritional status”, 64 (36%) were “at risk” and 90 (51%) were “malnourished”. The mortality rate was 0, 1.4 and 6.9 cases/1000 person‐day (incidence ratio 4.9 times), respectively. The complications incidence rate was 0, 18 and 30.1 cases/1000 person‐day (incidence ratio 1.7 times), respectively. The number of days in hospital were 11.1, 14.0 and 21.6 days (p < 0.01), respectively. The discharge to home rate was 90.4, 84.4 and 53.3% (p < 0.01), respectively.
Conclusions: Among all patients on a Japanese general medicine ward, those with poor nourishment assessed by the MNA‐SF showed a high death rate and complication incidence rate. And they are also proved to be difficult to early discharge from the hospital back to the patient's homes.
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