The present study investigated mitochondrial adaptations and oxidative damage after 4 and 8 weeks of running training in skeletal muscle of mice. Twenty-one male mice (CF1, 30-35 g) were distributed into the following groups (n = 7): untrained (UT); trained-4 weeks (T4); trained-8 weeks (T8). Forty-eight hours after the last training session the animals were killed by decapitation and quadriceps (red portion) were removed and stored at -70 degrees C. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), complexes I, II, II-III and IV, lipoperoxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC) and total thiol content were measured. Results show that endurance training (8-wk) increases the SDH activity and complexes (I, II, III, IV), decreases oxidative damage (TBARS, CP) and increases total thiol content in skeletal muscle when compared to untrained animals. In conclusion, eight weeks of running training are necessary for increases in mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activities to occur, in association with decreased oxidative damage.
This study aimed to compare the adolescents’ body dissatisfaction with physical activity, teasing during physical activity and social support. Participants were 938 Brazilian adolescents aged 15–19 years. Study variables were investigated through questionnaires. There was no difference in body dissatisfaction among adolescents who practiced and did not practice physical activity, but among the former, those who had been teased had greater body dissatisfaction. Also, adolescents who had a relative or friend to talk, in addition to giving and receiving affection, more frequently, presented lower body dissatisfaction. Stratifying the sample by gender, the results were similar in females but were not significant in males.
Introduction. Urinary incontinence (UI) is perceived as a problem that affects older and multiparous women. However, recent studies report that involuntary loss of urine also affects athletes, young and nulliparous. There is controversy over the role of exercise in UI. Thus the purpose of the review is to describe and evaluate scientific evidence concerning the prevalence of UI in female volleyball athletes. Methods. The review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta--Analyses (PRISMA). The selected databases were PubMed, LILACS, PEDro, Medline, Cochrane, and ScienceDirect. The searches were performed between December 2016 and January 2017. The descriptors and Boolean operators used in the search were as follows: 'urinary incontinence AND athletes AND volleyball.' After peer evaluation, 47 studies were identified, and 6 articles were selected for review. The methodological evaluation was based on Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE).Results. The review identified the UI prevalence of 9-30% during sports practice and 17-18% in the day-by-day life. Practising physical exercise of high impact appears to be a causing factor of UI in women.Conclusions. Practising volleyball in the female population can be an important UI risk factor. Owing to the high prevalence of UI, coaches and athletes must be aware of the importance of training the pelvic floor muscles simultaneously with the sports practice. Key words: stress, urinary incontinence, muscles of the pelvic floor, sport review paper Citation: da Silva Pereira F, Haupenthal A, Scarabelot KS, Brunazo PF, Nunes I, Virtuoso JF. Urinary incontinence prevalence in the day--by-day life and during sports practice in volleyball athletes: a systematic review.
Introdução: As disfunções dos músculos do assoalho pélvico (DMAP) ocorrem devido a alterações das estruturas da região pélvica. A identificação de sintomas no exame preventivo de câncer de colo de útero é importante para aprimorar políticas públicas de atenção à saúde da mulher. Objetivo: Analisar a prevalência de DMAP em mulheres que realizam exame preventivo de câncer de colo de útero. Métodos: Tratou-se de um estudo transversal cuja população foi composta por 64 mulheres adultas. Os instrumentos de pesquisa utilizados foram ficha de identificação de DMAP e ficha de identificação de fatores associados as DMAP. Resultados: Constipação (40,6%), incontinência urinária (IU) (39,1%) e dispareunia (23,4%) foram as mais prevalentes, com 39,1% das mulheres apresentando sintomas de uma única disfunção, 21,9% duas disfunções e 9,4% associação de três disfunções, 44% das mulheres com IU também apresentam constipação e 28% com IU apresentavam dispareunia. Nenhum fator demonstrou associação à constipação, IU demonstrou uma tendência à associação ao consumo de cafeína e dispareunia ao uso de medicamentos Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina. Conclusão: Observou-se maior prevalência de constipação, IU e dispareunia destacando-se a sobreposição de sintomas, enfatizando a importância da detecção precoce das DMAP ainda na atenção primária.Palavras-chave: assoalho pélvico, constipação intestinal, incontinência urinária, dispareunia.
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