The United Nations declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (grain legumes) under the banner 'nutritious seeds for a sustainable future'. A second green revolution is required to ensure food and nutritional security in the face of global climate change. Grain legumes provide an unparalleled solution to this problem because of their inherent capacity for symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation, which provides economically sustainable advantages for farming. In addition, a legume-rich diet has health benefits for humans and livestock alike. However, grain legumes form only a minor part of most current human diets, and legume crops are greatly under-used. Food security and soil fertility could be significantly improved by greater grain legume usage and increased improvement of a range of grain legumes. The current lack of coordinated focus on grain legumes has compromised human health, nutritional security and sustainable food production.
Maize is grown under a wide spectrum of soil and climatic conditions. Maize is moderately sensitive to salt stress; therefore, soil salinity is a serious threat to its production worldwide. Understanding maize response to salt stress and resistance mechanisms and overviewing management options may help to devise strategies for improved maize performance in saline environments. Here, we reviewed the effects, resistance mechanisms, and management of salt stress in maize. Our main conclusions are as follows: (1) germination and stand establishment are more sensitive to salt stress than later developmental stages. (2) High rhizosphere sodium and chloride decrease plant uptake of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron. (3) Reduced grain weight and number are responsible for low grain yield in maize under salt stress. Sink limitations and reduced acid invertase activity in developing grains is responsible for poor kernel setting under salt stress. (4) Exclusion of excessive sodium or its compartmentation into vacuoles is an important adaptive strategy for maize under salt stress. (5) Apoplastic acidification, required for cell wall extensibility, is an important indicator of salt resistance, but not essential for better maize growth under salt stress. (6) Upregulation of antioxidant defense genes and β-expansin proteins is important for salt resistance in maize. (7) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve salt resistance in maize due to better plant nutrient availability. (8) Seed priming is an effective approach for improving maize germination under salt stress. (9) Integration of screening, breeding and ion homeostasis mechanisms into a functional paradigm for the whole plant may help to enhance salt resistance in maize.
High temperatures and decreased rainfall are detrimental to yield in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), particularly during grain filling. This study aimed to (i) assess the individual and combined effects of drought and heat stress on biochemical seed-filling processes, (ii) determine genotypic differences in heat and drought tolerance, and (iii) determine any cross-tolerance. Plants were grown outdoors in the normal growing season when temperatures during seed filling were <32−20°C or were planted late (temperatures >32−20°C; heat stress). Half of the pots were kept adequately watered throughout, but water was withheld from the others from the initiation of seed filling until the relative leaf water content reached 50% of the irrigated plants (drought stress); all plants were rewatered thereafter until seed maturit. Water was withheld for 13 days (normal sowing) and 7 days (late sowing), so soil moisture decreased by 54–57%. Tests on leaves and seeds were performed after the stress. Individual and combined stress damaged membranes, and decreased cellular oxidising ability, stomatal conductance, PSII function and leaf chlorophyll content; damage was greater under combined stress. Leaf Rubisco activity increased with heat stress, decreased with drought stress and decreased severely with combined stress. Sucrose and starch concentrations decreased in all seeds through reductions in biosynthetic enzymes; reductions were greater under combined stress. These effects were more severe in heat- and drought-sensitive genotypes compared with drought-tolerant genotypes. Drought stress had a greater effect than heat stress on yield and the biochemical seed-filling mechanisms. Drought- and heat-tolerant genotypes showed partial cross-tolerance.
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