Bio-based films were prepared by acylation of cellulose with saturated, unsaturated and branched fatty acids. The products showed increased thermal stability, low water vapour transmission rates and enhanced tensile and elastic properties.
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are considered as a green and environmentally benign solvent class for various applications, including delignification of biomass. One of the major challenges in the delignification of biomass by DES is attributed to the limitations in mass transfer. By subjecting wood chips to a low-energy mechanical refining, i.e., the Asplund process, the accessible surface area increases greatly, which in turn improves the mass transfer and increases the reaction rate. In this research, the DES delignification of Asplund fibers made of Norway spruce was studied as a strategy to produce papermaking fibers under mild conditions. A DES consisting of lactic acid and choline chloride was used due to its proven performance in delignification. Various operational conditions, such as temperature, time, DES-to-wood ratio, and the type of stirring were studied. A novel parameter, Q, allowed to evaluate the impact of the operational conditions on the quality of the pulp in terms of delignification degree and fiber length. The results showed that cooking temperature had the most significant effect on the pulp quality. Additionally, it was observed that cooking times between 30 and 45 min result in a pulp yield of about 50%, while fibers have a lignin content of about 14% and a fiber length of 0.6 mm. These results demonstrate that it is possible to obtain fibers of relatively good quality from DES delignification using Asplund fibers as the starting material.
The activation parameter developed is based on the fiber wall thickness distribution, fiber curl distribution, and water retention value of the unrefined fibers. The mechanical properties of paper that contain chemical pulp depend, among other things, on the free fiber segment activation between fiberfiber crossings that is created during drying. Experimental data revealed that the degree of fiber swelling is responsible together with the fiber shape factor (curl) and fiber wall thickness for the extent of fiber network activation. The amount of bonding between fibers also affects fiber segment activation. Based on the experimental data, it was deduced that interfiber bonding ability of fibers, characterized as the water retention value, was mainly responsible for the development of handsheet density. Tensile index development was more affected by the morphology of fibers, which was the main determinant for high activation potential of fibers. Factor analysis was used to identify the main causes of variation for a refining data set of 20 Eucalyptus grandis samples. Three independent descriptors were found to be responsible for the majority of the variation: the bonding and activation factor, the factor of microcompressions, and the factor of fiber wall thickness and fiber curl. The activation parameter developed in this study can be used to determine the effect of fiber segment activation and inter-fiber bonding on the inplane mechanical properties of paper.
Softwood-based kraft mill bleaching effluents from the initial bleaching stages D0 and E1 (the bleaching sequence being D0E 1D 1 E2D2) were treated by the oxidative Fenton method (H20rFeS04) to decompose organic pollutants contammg adsorbable organic halogens (AOX). Experiments designed using the Taguchi method were applied to predict the process conditions that would result in a cost-effective and adequate removal of AOX. In addition to the composition and concentration of the reagents (H202 and Fe2+), the main process parameters selected were temperature and reaction time, while pH was adj usted to an approximate value of 4 (the volumetric ratio of the mixed effluents D0:E 1 was 3 :2). The results indicated that an AOX removal of about 70% for this mixture ( corresponding to about 50% for the mill) was achieved when the eftluent samples were treated for 60 min at 70°C with H202 and Fe2+ at a concentration of 1 600 mg/1 and 28 mg/1, respectively.
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