In the treatment of small renal cortical neoplasms with short-term follow-up, LPN and LCA seem to be equally effective. LCA offers decreased blood loss, shorter operative time, and less morbidity. Longer follow-up is required to establish oncologic efficacy.
Resumo: Analisa-se um modelo compartimental para a transmisão de Leishmaniose que contempla o homem, cão e Lutzomyia como hospedeiros vertebrados e invertebrado, respetivamente. Deriva-se a expressão do número de reprodutibilidade basal. Estuda-se a estabilidade. Aplica-se o mesmo para simular a situação de zonas endêmicas no Estado de São Paulo. A incidência anual desta doençaé estimada em 1-1, 5 milhões de casos de LC e 0, 5 milhões de casos de LV, no Velho Mundo. A incidência total no mundoé de 12 milhões de pessoas e a população total em risco ronda a casa dos 350 milhões de pessoas . Por causa desses números a Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) considera esta entre as seis mais importantes doenças do mundo. Em 1993, a OMS considerou Leishmaniose como a segunda doença causada por protozoários de importância em saúde pública.
IntroduçãoEsta doençaé de caráter zoonótico que acomete o homem e diversos animais domésticos e silvestres. A Leishmanioseé causada por parasitas do gênero Leishmania Ross, um protozoário digenético que tem seu ciclo biológico composto de hospedeiros vertebrados e invertebrados. Os hospedeiros invertebrados são pequenos insetos da ordem Diptera, família Psychodydade, subfamilia Phlebotominae, gênero Lutzomyia .
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is a disease transmitted to humans by the female sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia. Several factors are involved in the disease transmission cycle. In this work only rainfall and deforestation were considered to assess the variability in the incidence of ATL. In order to reach this goal, monthly recorded data of the incidence of ATL in Orán, Salta, Argentina, were used, in the period 1985–2007. The square root of the relative incidence of ATL and the corresponding variance were formulated as time series, and these data were smoothed by moving averages of 12 and 24 months, respectively. The same procedure was applied to the rainfall data. Typical months, which are April, August, and December, were found and allowed us to describe the dynamical behavior of ATL outbreaks. These results were tested at 95% confidence level. We concluded that the variability of rainfall would not be enough to justify the epidemic outbreaks of ATL in the period 1997–2000, but it consistently explains the situation observed in the years 2002 and 2004. Deforestation activities occurred in this region could explain epidemic peaks observed in both years and also during the entire time of observation except in 2005–2007.
The present study aimed to understanding some of the process underling in the dynamics of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL), which had occurred in Department of Orán, Argentina, in the period 1985-2007. The monthly empirically estimations occurrence probabilities of cases of ATL could be to help understand how epidemiological mechanisms of enhancement during the endemic period or outbreaks of ATL. We have estimated monthly probabilities of occurrence thereof, the monthly empirical cumulative distribution function, the monthly probability mass function, in order to establish a partition of [0,1] and apply-
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