Growing Coffea arabica in regions of the Western Amazon is limited by early maturation and by its limited adaptation to regions of low altitude and high temperature. The aim in this study was to quantify the genotype × environment interaction of C. arabica lines in four different environments of the Western Amazon, seeking to assist selection of new lines with greater adaptability and stability for the region. In the months of December 2012 and January 2013, four competitive trials were set up in municipalities of the states of Rondônia and Acre. Each trial was composed of 21 lines and 4 reference cultivars evaluated as controls recommended for planting in the southeast region. In combined analysis, significant differences were not detected between the cultivars and controls; the mean yield of hulled coffee was 12.05 bags ha-1. The Alta Floresta Do Oeste environment has higher yield and is the only environment favorable for growing C. arabica; that environment is differentiated from the others through its higher altitudes and low temperatures. Through GGE biplot analyses, lines 12 and 13, identified as H514-7-10-6-9 and H514-7-10-6-2-3-9, were found to have results superior to the controls in the municipality of Alta Floresta Do Oeste, RO. The gain from selection of 56% obtained from line G12 and the gain of 46% obtained from line G13 show performance superior to the best control. The germplasm studied does not have genetic variability that contributes to selection of plants for adaptation to the low altitude and high temperatures in the amazonic region.
Knowledge of the expression of traits associated with drought tolerance is important to mitigate impacts on coffee production in a climate change scenario. This study aimed to understand the genetic divergence between Coffea canephora genotypes grown in the Western Amazon based on leaf vegetative and anatomical traits. For this, fifteen high-performance genotypes were evaluated in a randomized block design with five replications of one plant per plot to analyze three leaf vegetative traits (leaf area index, root volume, and total dry mass) and five leaf anatomical traits (polar and equatorial diameter, density and number of stomata, and stomatal area). The data were interpreted using analysis of variance and the Scott-Knott mean cluster test (p ≤ 0.05). The Tocher optimization method and principal component analysis with reference points were used to quantify the genetic divergence. Tocher clustering separated the fifteen clones into five groups, and the scatter in the plane into three groups. Stomatal density was the trait that most contributed to the dissimilarity between genotypes with the potential to be used in future studies for the selection of water deficit-tolerant genotypes. The BRS 3213 genotype showed the greatest genetic dissimilarity and composed a group isolated from the other genotypes in terms of anatomical characteristics. Hybrids 12 and 15 have leaf anatomical traits with higher drought tolerance potential.
Little is known about the management of high-yield clonal Coffea canephora in the Amazonian Region, mainly for nutritional aspects and cultivation system efficiency. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different nitrogen and potassium fertilization rates on coffee grain yield and fertilizer use efficiency of C. canephora trees. An experiment was performed at an experimental field of the Embrapa Rondônia in Porto Velho (RO), Brazil. It was carried out in a split-plot scheme with six doses of 20-00-20 NPK formulation (0; 250; 500; 1,000; 2,000; and 3,000 kg ha-1) and three years of evaluation (2014, 2015, and 2016). An interaction between fertilizer dose and crop year was observed. Fertilizer doses showed an exponential behavior, with maximum yields of 51, 114, and 79 bags ha-1 at 3,000 kg ha-1 in the crop years of 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively. Such a behavior impacted average and accumulated yields in the three harvest seasons. As for crop year effect within each fertilizer dose, the highest yield was reached in the second harvest after pruning for renewal of orthotropic stems. Moreover, fertilizer use efficiency by plants decreased exponentially, with the highest value at the lowest dose. Increasing doses of 20-00-20 formulation promoted an exponential increase in grain yield but decreased its use efficiency by C. canephora plants. This management also stimulated a strong biannual production.
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