Swept-source optical biometry showed high repeatability performance for all biometric parameters in healthy eyes, where the correlation between the spherical equivalent and AL showed the strongest value.
The results obtained in the present study suggest that both designs might enlarge the depth of focus. Whereas, the Mini WELL Ready showed better optical quality than the TECNIS Symfony at far vision with 4.5 mm aperture, and larger defocus tolerance than the diffractive lens at near-distance vision.
PurposeTo evaluate the long-term predictability, stability, safety, and efficacy of the V4c Visian implantable collamer lens (ICL) with central hole to correct myopia.Patients and methodsOne hundred and eighty-four eyes of 92 patients were evaluated during 3 years after implantation of the V4c ICL. The refraction, uncorrected distance visual acuity, best-corrected distance visual acuity, IOP, endothelial cell count, vault, and adverse effects were evaluated every 12 months during the whole follow-up.ResultsThe mean spherical equivalent dropped from -8.30±2.98 D preoperatively to −0.37±0.47 D at 36 months post-surgery, with 91.8% eyes being within ±1.00 D of emmetropia. With respect to the astigmatic components J0 and J45, 98.4% and 99.5% of eyes, respectively, were within ±0.50 D of the desired refraction. At 36 months, 78.8% of eyes had no change in the Snellen lines of best-corrected distance visual acuity, while 8.7% gained one line and 6.5% gained two or more lines; mean safety and efficacy indexes were 1.03 and 0.90, respectively. Mean endothelial cell count was 2,742±340 cells/mm2 before and 2,663±366 cells/mm2 at 36 months post-surgery. Mean IOP reduced from 13.7±1.9 mmHg preoperatively to 12.8±1.7 mmHg at 36 months post-surgery. Mean vault varied from 409±196 µm at 12 months to 349±165 µm at 36 months.ConclusionThe visual and refractive outcomes were very good and highly stable throughout the follow-up period, indicating that this ICL model may be predictable, stable, safe, and effective to correct myopia in the long term.
SIGNIFICANCE Digital display use has been accepted as a contributing factor to dry eye disease. Nowadays, plenty of new models of digital displays have been developed, and the differences in their nature and the ways in which they are set and used may contribute to differences in the eye-related problems they cause. PURPOSE This study aimed to analyze the differences in ocular surface, tear film, and visual fatigue parameters after reading on different digital displays, with and without initial instillation of artificial tears. METHODS Thirty-one healthy individuals ranging in age from 20 to 26 years (mean ± standard deviation, 21.26 ± 1.73 years) were included in this prospective clinical study. Subjects' ocular surface, tear film, and visual fatigue parameters were assessed after reading for 15 minutes on a laptop computer, tablet, e-reader, and smartphone with matching characteristics and a baseline measurement. Measurements were taken with and without the instillation of artificial tears before the reading tasks and included the Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, the Computer Vision Syndrome Questionnaire, tear meniscus height, the Schirmer I test, noninvasive keratograph break-up time, osmolarity, bulbar redness, and pupil size. RESULTS Statistically significant differences in the Ocular Surface Disease Index, Computer Vision the Syndrome Questionnaire, tear meniscus height, the Schirmer I test, noninvasive keratograph break-up time, osmolarity, and bulbar redness were obtained when comparing the displays (P < .05). Best results were obtained with the smartphone and the e-reader. Conversely, the computer produced the highest disturbance on the ocular surface and tear film. Finally, the instillation of artificial tears revealed no statistical improvement of ocular surface or tear film parameters for the same device (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS Taking into account the clinical tests for dry eye diagnosis, the smartphone may be considered as the least disturbing display, producing lower dry eye signs and symptoms in comparison with other devices.
The TECNIS Symfony IOL is less vergence dependent than the AT LISA and Finevision IOLs under dim conditions. These results may help clinicians to choose the proper lens depending on the patient's visual requirements.
An automatic method for three-dimensional (3-D) shape recognition is proposed. It combines the Fourier transform profilometry technique with a real-time recognition setup such as the joint transform correlator (JTC). A grating is projected onto the object surface resulting in a distorted grating pattern. Since this pattern carries information about the depth and the shape of the object, their comparison provides a method for recognizing 3-D objects in real time. A two-cycle JTC is used for this purpose. Experimental results demonstrate the theory and show the utility of the new proposed method.
Citation: DelÁguila-Carrasco AJ, Marín-Franch I, Bernal-Molina P, et al. Accommodation responds to optical vergence and not defocus blur alone. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:175858: -176358: . DOI:10.1167 PURPOSE. To determine whether changes in wavefront spherical curvature (optical vergence) are a directional cue for accommodation.METHODS. Nine subjects participated in this experiment. The accommodation response to a monochromatic target was measured continuously with a custom-made adaptive optics system while astigmatism and higher-order aberrations were corrected in real time. There were two experimental open-loop conditions: vergence-driven condition, where the deformable mirror provided sinusoidal changes in defocus at the retina between À1 and þ1 diopters (D) at 0.2 Hz; and blur-driven condition, in which the level of defocus at the retina was always 0 D, but a sinusoidal defocus blur between À1 and þ1 D at 0.2 Hz was simulated in the target. Right before the beginning of each trial, the target was moved to an accommodative demand of 2 D.RESULTS. Eight out of nine subjects showed sinusoidal responses for the vergence-driven condition but not for the blur-driven condition. Their average (6SD) gain for the vergencedriven condition was 0.50 (60.28). For the blur-driven condition, average gain was much smaller at 0.07 (60.03). The ninth subject showed little to no response for both conditions, with average gain <0.08. Vergence-driven condition gain was significantly different from blurdriven condition gain (P ¼ 0.004).CONCLUSIONS. Accommodation responds to optical vergence, even without feedback, and not to changes in defocus blur alone. These results suggest the presence of a retinal mechanism that provides a directional cue for accommodation from optical vergence.
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