The penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) in the transportation sector is increasing but conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) based vehicles dominates. To accelerate the adoption of EVs and to achieve sustainable transportation, the bottlenecks need to be elevated that mainly include the high cost EVs, range anxiety, lack of EV charging infrastructure, and the pollution of the grid due to EV chargers. The high cost of EVs is due to costly energy storage systems (ESS) with high energy density. This paper provides a comprehensive review of EV technology that mainly includes electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), ESS, and EV chargers. A detailed discussion is presented on the state-of-the-art of EV chargers that include on-/off-board chargers. Different topologies are discussed with low-/high-frequency transformers. The different available power levels for charging are discussed. To reduce the range anxiety the EV chargers based on inductive power transfer (IPT) are discussed. The last part of the paper focuses on the negative impact of EV chargers along with the remedies that can be adopted. The international standards decided by different institutions and adopted universally are discussed in the latter part of this paper and finally, this paper concludes with the near to future advancement in EV technology.
The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) are prone to certain uncertainties, nonlinearities, and external disturbances. The maximum power transfer from WECS to the utility grid system requires a high-performance control system in the presence of such nonlinearities and disturbances. This paper presents a nonlinear robust chattering free super twisting fractional order terminal sliding mode control (ST-FOTSMC) strategy for both the grid side and rotor side converters of 2 MW DFIG-WECS. The Lyapunov stability theory was used to ensure the stability of the proposed closed-loop control system. The performance of the proposed control paradigm is validated using extensive numerical simulations carried out in MATLAB/Simulink environment. A detailed comparative analysis of the proposed strategy is presented with the benchmark sliding mode control (SMC) and fractional order terminal sliding mode control (FOTSMC) strategies. The proposed control scheme was found to exhibit superior performance to both the stated strategies under normal mode of operation as well as under lumped parametric uncertainties.
This paper presents a comparative performance analysis of 4-kW axial flux permanent magnet synchronous machines (AFPMSMs) with and without a rotor core. The present study is intended for lowspeed applications; however, the investigated machines are designed using an improved diameter-to-length method and their comparative performance is assessed using comprehensive electromagnetic finite element analysis. The results of this analysis suggest that the proposed coreless topology has the advantages of higher output power, higher efficiency, and lower iron or core losses compared to the conventional iron core AFPMSM.
A segmented-core (SC) structure has been widely used for high-power-density (HP) motors. However, the SC motor is associated with a number of problems due to the complexity of both the structure and the manufacturing process. To address these issues, a novel structure of a HP motor is proposed, referred to as the ring-coupled segmented-stator (RSS) model here. The proposed RSS can increase the reliability, the stability, and the manufacturability of motor. Furthermore, useful thermal analysis and design flow which take into account the RSS and asymmetric overhang structure of the motor are proposed in this research. The proposed lumped parameter thermal network (LPTN) for the thermal analysis shows a good agreement with experimental data within 9.8% difference. The proposed analysis and design method can be used for the diverse kinds of motor requiring the HP. The usefulness of the proposed RSS motor, the analysis method, and the design method are verified through the experiment in this research.
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