The dominant paradigm for HPV carcinogenesis includes integration into the host genome followed by expression of E6 and E7 (E6/E7). We explored an alternative carcinogenic pathway characterized by episomal E2, E4, and E5 (E2/E4/E5) expression. Half of HPV positive cervical and pharyngeal cancers comprised a subtype with increase in expression of E2/E4/E5, as well as association with lack of integration into the host genome. Models of the E2/E4/E5 carcinogenesis show p53 dependent enhanced proliferation in vitro, as well as increased susceptibility to induction of cancer in vivo. Whole genomic expression analysis of the E2/E4/E5 pharyngeal cancer subtype is defined by activation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) pathway and this subtype is susceptible to combination FGFR and mTOR inhibition, with implications for targeted therapy.
Osteomas are benign osteogenic lesions that result from the proliferation of mature bone. Three variants are known: central, peripheral, and extraskeletal. The peripheral variant is the most common and it most frequently affects the paranasal sinuses, rarely occurring in the jaws. This article describes the case of a 33-year-old white male patient who was referred complaining of facial asymmetry. Clinical examination revealed an increase in volume at the base of the right side of the mandible, hard bony consistency and well delimited, painless to the touch, without signs of infection or intraoral alterations. Radiographic examination revealed an oval lobulated, radiopaque sessile lesion adhered to the mandibular base near the insertion of the masseter muscle. The patient reported practicing martial arts many years ago. Owing to the limited access, it was decided to perform the complete lesion removal through an extraoral surgical approach, by using a skin crease in the upper neck region below the lesion. The patient recovered well and the histopathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of osteoma. The etiopathogenesis of osteoma is not completely elucidated, and 3 theories are more accepted: developmental defect, neoplastic nature, and reactive lesion owing to trauma or local infection. The clinicopathological correlation in the present case supports a traumatic origin. Traumatic peripheral osteoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nodular bone-forming lesions affecting the mandible.
Spindle cell lipoma (SCL) and pleomorphic lipoma constitute a spectrum of lipomatous lesions with distinctive clinicopathological features. Multiple variants of SCL have been reported including fibrous, plexiform, vascular, pseudoangiomatous, low-fat/fat-free, and myxoid changes. This paper describes an unusual patient with a 1-cm submucosal nodular lesion excised from the buccal mucosa of a 55-year-old woman with classic histopathological and immunohistochemical features of "low-fat" plexiform SCL with prominent myxoid stroma, which initially suggested a soft-tissue myxomatous lesion other than SCL. The current lesion exhibited microscopically few adipocytes supported by network-like myxoid proliferations with retraction artifacts from the surrounding stromal connective tissue. Immunohistochemistry was positive for vimentin, CD34, CD10, and S100, the latter only on adipocytes. The Ki-67 was <1%. Pan-cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), desmin, alpha-SMA, EMA, bcl-2, p53, and remarkably retinoblastoma protein (pRb) were negative. "Low-fat" plexiform SCL bear no significant prognostic significance, but this lesion may challenge the diagnosis even experienced pathologists.
O principal meio de aprendizado de estruturas humanas em cursos da saúde é a manipulação de cadáveres. A disciplina de anatomia humana é de fundamental importância na formação desses profissionais e sua aprovação é considerada um requisito essencial para sequência do aluno em outras disciplinas. Visto que peças naturais à fresco estão sujeitas à uma rápida decomposição e sua reposição por novas peças é inviável às instituições, o ato de tentar preservá-las requer métodos e substâncias que vêm sendo catalogadas há muito tempo. A literatura mostra como principais técnicas de fixação de tecidos biológicos o uso de formaldeído bem como a glicerina, álcool etílico, fenol e a plastinação. Cada uma das técnicas possui características singulares e apresentam melhor ou pior desempenho na fixação de tecidos. O uso de formaldeído mantém-se como principal método de fixação, visto seu baixo custo. Diante do exposto, o presente trabalho objetiva por meio de uma revisão literária, abordar os principais métodos de fixação das peças anatômicas.Ci
Salivary adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified (AdCaNOS) is a rare malignant tumor with potential diagnostic challenge, which mainly affects the parotid glands; however, the minor salivary glands can also be involved by AdCaNOS. This paper reports a case of a 45-year-old Afro-descendant woman complaining of a slow-growing mass with 6 months of evolution in the left superior vestibular fornix. Microscopic examination revealed an infiltrative epithelial neoplasm composed of predominantly solid growth pattern, arranged in a lobular configuration, admixed with glandular or ductal structures. Perineural invasion was evident. The tumor cells were polygonal or oval showing focally mild nuclear pleomorphism, and eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm. Notably, some areas exhibited intracytoplasmic pigment granules mainly in non-luminal cells, as well as sebaceous-like cells, discrete hyaline material deposition and foci of infiltration of residual salivary gland parenchyma. Tumor cells were negative for PAS, mucicarmine and Alcian blue stains. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells were diffuse and strongly positive for pan-cytokeratin (CK) AE1/AE3, 34betaE12 CK, vimentin, p63 and S100. CK7 and EMA strongly highlighted the ductal structures. Solid areas also showed diffuse and moderate expression of CD56. Podoplanin (D2-40), GFAP and Calponin, followed by DOG-1, were focally positive; whereas CK20, α-SMA, h-Caldesmon, CD57, ERBB2/HER2 and p53 were negative. Ki-67 was < 2%. Consecutive serial tissue sections using CD57 confirmed the perineural invasion. Positivity for HMB-45 and MART-1/Melan-A, as well as Fontana-Masson stain (and potassium permanganate bleaching-sensitive), identified the pigment granules as melanin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of intraoral low-grade AdCaNOS with intracytoplasmic melanin granules.
Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a rare autosomal dominant disorder, with no gender predilection. Individuals with NBCCS are commonly diagnosed between 17 and 35 years old and can present multiple basal cell carcinomas scattered throughout the body, presence of recurrent and early-onset odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) and skeletal abnormalities. This article describes a case of a 13-year-old white boy who referred complaining of facial asymmetry. Extraoral examination revealed volumetric increase displacing the nasal ala from the right side and extended to the zygomatic bone. The intraoral evaluation showed mixed dentition with moderate degree of malocclusion. In addition, bilateral vestibular fornix swelling was observed in the upper canine region. An increase in volume was also detected on the hard palate on the right side. Computed tomography revealed multiple hypodense lesions with cystic appearance. The aspiration was positive, with a yellowish aspirate of serous consistency of all lesions. Given the numerous lesions, it was decided to decompress them for posterior enucleation procedures. In addition to other manifestations, the patient was diagnosed with NBCCS. Although common, the occurrence of OKCs in pediatric patients, especially in multiple lesions, is highly indicative of NBCCS, and its investigation should be considered, even in the absence of other signs of this syndrome. Synchronous decompression was satisfactory and can be used in similar cases of multiple cystic lesions.
Stafne’s bone cavity (SBC) is an asymptomatic lingual bone cavity situated near the angle of the mandible. The anterior variant of SBC, which shows a radiolucent unilateral ovoid lingual bone concavity in the canine-premolar mandibular region, is uncommon. A 73-year-old man was referred for assessment of loss of mandibular bone. Panoramic radiographs and computerized tomography scans showed a well-defined lingual bony defect in the anterior mandible. Analysis of imaginological documentation, made 14 years ago, revealed a progressive increase in mesiodistal diameter and intraosseous bony defect. The soft tissue obtained within the bony defect, microscopically revealed fibrous stroma containing blood vessels of varied caliber. The current anterior lingual mandibular bone defect case is probably caused by the salivary gland entrapped or pressure resorption, which can explain the SBC pathogenesis.KEYWORDSBone defect; Mandible; Cone beam computed tomography; Diagnosis; Case report.
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