Aims: To investigate the effects of a 6-month supplementation with calcium and cholecalciferol on biochemical parameters and muscle strength of institutionalized elderly. Methods: This prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial included Brazilian institutionalized people ≥60 years of age receiving a 6-month supplementation (December to May) of daily calcium plus monthly placebo (calcium/placebo group) or daily calcium plus oral cholecalciferol (150,000 IU once a month during the first 2 months, followed by 90,000 IU once a month for the last 4 months; calcium/vitamin D group). Fasting blood samples for 25(OH)D, PTH and calcium determination were collected (n = 56) and muscle tests were performed (n = 46) to measure the strength of hip flexors (SHF) and knee extensors (SKE) before (baseline) and after the 6-month intervention (6 months). Results: Due to seasonal variations, serum 25(OH)D significantly enhanced in both groups after treatment, but the calcium/vitamin D group had significantly higher 25 (OH)D levels than the calcium/placebo group (84 vs. 33%, respectively; p < 0.0001). No cases of hypercalcemia were observed. While the calcium/placebo group showed no improvement in SHF and SKE at 6 months (p = 0.93 and p = 0.61, respectively), SHF was increased in the calcium/vitamin D group by 16.4% (p = 0.0001) and SKE by 24.6% (p = 0.0007). Conclusions: The suggested cholecalciferol supplementation was safe and efficient in enhancing 25(OH)D levels and lower limb muscle strength in the elderly, in the absence of any regular physical exercise practice.
This study aimed to evaluate the 24-week effects of a high-intensity aquatic exercise program on bone remodeling markers and bone mass of postmenopausal women. In this randomized, controlled trial we studied 108 women (58.8 ± 6.4 years), randomized into Aquatic Exercise Group (AEG), n = 64, performing 24 weeks of aquatic exercises, and Control Group (CG), n = 44, sedentary. They had their fasting morning blood sample collected for the measures of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx). Bone mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before and after the intervention. Participants of both groups received a daily supplementation of 500 mg of elementary calcium and 1,000 IU of vitamin D (cholecalciferol). Results showed an augment in bone formation marker (P1NP) only in the AEG (15.8 %; p = 0.001), and although both groups experienced significant enhancements in bone resorption marker (CTx), this increase was less considerable in the AEG (15 % in the AEG and 29 % in the CG). IPTH was increased by 19 % in the CG (p = 0.003) at the end. The femoral trochanter BMD presented a 1.2 % reduction in the CG (p = 0.009), whereas in the AEG no change was observed (p = 0.069). The proposed aquatic exercise program was efficient in attenuating bone resorption raise and enhancing bone formation, which prevented the participants in the AEG from reducing the femoral trochanter BMD, as happened in the CG.
M2 macrophages are often detected in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), which, influenced by hypoxic conditions, appear to have high angiogenesis‐inducing capacity. However, the effects of immunosenescence on tumor‐associated macrophages (TAMs) and angiogenesis in OSCC are unknown.
Fifty‐seven OSCCs were divided into 3 groups (I: <40 years [n = 17]; II: 40‐65 years [n = 20]; III: >65 years [n = 20]). Immunohistochemistry for CD68 and CD163 (TAMs), and CD34 and D2‐40 for microvessel density (MVD), microvessel area (MVA), and total vascular area (TVA) were performed.
All groups showed similar clinicopathological and immunohistochemical findings. Similar CD68 and CD163 expression, confirmed a M2 phenotype. MVD, MVA, and TVA were similar, however, with significant predominance of blood vessels. No significant correlation between macrophage and angiogenic markers was observed.
A similar TAM and angiogenesis profile suggests the participation of other mechanisms, instead immunosenescence, in young and elderly OSCC patients.
Nosso sistema de amortecimento começa no pé, segue para o tornozelo, perna e para o resto do corpo. A cada passada, todo o peso do corpo recai sobre uma dos membros inferiores. Quando caminhamos ou corremos, o problema é basicamente a repetição do mesmo exercício por longos períodos, o que exige um sistema eficiente de amortecimento para diminuir os danos causados pelo constante impacto nas articulações e que, muitas vezes, podem se agravar pelas alterações na estrutura anatômica do pé. A utilização de calçados apropriados ajuda no funcionamento normal do sistema natural de amortecedores. Além disso, uma avaliação do arco plantar e do tipo da pisada poderá contribuir ainda mais para absorver o impacto nas articulações, uma vez que já existem modelos de calçados adaptados às alterações estruturais do pé.
Spindle cell lipoma (SCL) and pleomorphic lipoma constitute a spectrum of lipomatous lesions with distinctive clinicopathological features. Multiple variants of SCL have been reported including fibrous, plexiform, vascular, pseudoangiomatous, low-fat/fat-free, and myxoid changes. This paper describes an unusual patient with a 1-cm submucosal nodular lesion excised from the buccal mucosa of a 55-year-old woman with classic histopathological and immunohistochemical features of "low-fat" plexiform SCL with prominent myxoid stroma, which initially suggested a soft-tissue myxomatous lesion other than SCL. The current lesion exhibited microscopically few adipocytes supported by network-like myxoid proliferations with retraction artifacts from the surrounding stromal connective tissue. Immunohistochemistry was positive for vimentin, CD34, CD10, and S100, the latter only on adipocytes. The Ki-67 was <1%. Pan-cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), desmin, alpha-SMA, EMA, bcl-2, p53, and remarkably retinoblastoma protein (pRb) were negative. "Low-fat" plexiform SCL bear no significant prognostic significance, but this lesion may challenge the diagnosis even experienced pathologists.
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