RX J1713.7−3946 is the most remarkable TeV γ-ray SNR which emits γ-rays in the highest energy range. We made a new combined analysis of CO and H I in the SNR and derived the total protons in the interstellar medium (ISM). We have found that the inclusion of the H I gas provides a significantly better spatial match between the TeV γ-rays and ISM protons than the H 2 gas alone. In particular, the southeastern rim of the γ-ray shell has a counterpart only in the H I. The finding shows that the ISM proton distribution is consistent with the hadronic scenario that comic ray (CR) protons react with ISM protons to produce the γ-rays. This provides another step forward for the hadronic origin of the γ-rays by offering one of the necessary conditions missing in the previous hadronic interpretations. We argue that the highly inhomogeneous distribution of the ISM protons is crucial in the origin of the γ-rays. Most of the neutral gas was likely swept up by the stellar wind of an OB star prior to the SNe to form a low-density cavity and a swept-up dense wall. The cavity explains the low-density site where the diffusive shock acceleration of charged particles takes place with suppressed thermal X-rays, whereas the CR protons can reach the target protons in the wall to produce the γ-rays. The present finding allows us to estimate the total CR proton energy to be ∼10 48 ergs, 0.1 % of the total energy of a SNe.
An imaging system that can display both the amplitude and phase maps of internal vibration in soft tissues for forced low-frequency vibration is described. In this method, low-frequency sinusoidal vibration of frequency under several hundred hertz is applied from the surface of the sample and the resulting movement in it is measured from the Doppler frequency shift of the simultaneously transmitted probe ultrasonic waves. Basic experiments are carried out by using 3.0-MHz ultrasonic waves. The two-dimensional maps of the amplitude and phase of internal vibration are shown, and the velocities of vibration are measured for some samples as well as in vivo.
RX J1713.7−3946 is the most remarkable very-high-energy γ-ray supernova remnant which emits synchrotron X-rays without thermal features. We made a comparative study of CO, Hi and X-rays in order to better understand the relationship between the X-rays, and the molecular and atomic gas.The results indicate that the X-rays are enhanced around the CO and Hi clumps on a pc scale but are decreased inside the clumps on a 0.1 pc scale. Magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of the shock interaction with molecular and atomic gas indicate that the interaction between the shock waves and the clumps excite turbulence which amplifies the magnetic field around the clumps (Inoue et al. 2012). We suggest that the amplified magnetic field around the CO and Hi clumps enhances the synchrotron X-rays and possibly the acceleration of cosmic-ray electrons.
Aqueous humor (AH) is one of the body fluids in the eye, which is known to be related with various ocular diseases, but the complete RNAs characteristic of the AH in patients is not yet known. The aim of this study was, with a microarray analysis, to reveal the disease-related extracellular miRNAs profiles in individual patients AH. 100 μl of AH was collected by anterior chamber paracentesis from 10 glaucoma, 5 cataract, and 5 epiretinal membrane patients. The extracted total RNAs were shorter than 200 nt, and their amount was 5.27 ± 0.41 ng in average. Among 530.5 ± 44.6 miRNA types detected in each sample with a microarray detectable 2019 types of matured miRNAs, 172 miRNAs were detected in all 10 glaucoma or control patients. From the glaucoma group, 11 significantly up-regulated and 18 significantly down-regulated miRNAs (P < 0.05 for both) were found to have areas under the curve better than 0.74 in a receiver operating characteristic analysis. They also formed a cluster composed only of glaucoma patients in a hierarchal cluster analysis. AH had a possibility of becoming a source of miRNA that can serve as a biomarker and a therapeutic target.
We have carried out a spectral analysis of the Suzaku X-ray data in the 0.4-12 keV range toward the shell-type very-high-energy γ-ray supernova remnant RX J1713.7−3946. The aims of this analysis are to estimate detailed X-rays spectral properties at a high angular resolution up to 2 arcmin, and to compare them with the interstellar gas. The X-ray spectrum is non-thermal and used to calculate absorbing column density, photon index, and absorption-corrected X-ray flux. The photon index varies significantly from 2.1 to 2.9. It is shown that the X-ray intensity is well correlated with the photon index, especially in the west region, with a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The X-ray intensity tends to increase with the averaged interstellar gas density while the dispersion is relatively large. The hardest spectra having the photon index less than 2.4 are found outside of the central 10 arcmin of the SNR, from the north to the southeast (∼430 arcmin 2 ) and from the southwest to the northwest (∼150 arcmin 2 ). The former region shows low interstellar gas density, while the latter high interstellar gas density. We present discussion for possible scenarios which explain the distribution of the photon index and its relationship with the interstellar gas. Subject headings: cosmic rays -ISM: clouds -ISM: individual objects (RX J1713.7−3946) -ISM: supernova remnants -X-rays: ISM
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