Spiranthera odoratissima A. St. Hil. (manacá) is used in folk medicine to treat renal and hepatic diseases, stomachache, headaches and rheumatism. A central nervous system (CNS) depressant effect of the hexane fraction from the ethanolic extract of this plant has been described. β-caryophyllene, the main component of this essential oil, is a sesquiterpene compound with anti-inflammatory properties that has been found in essential oils derived from several medicinal plants. This work is aimed to evaluate the pharmacological activity of the essential oil obtained from S. odoratissima leaves (EO) and its major component on the murine CNS; we aimed to evaluate a possible anxiolytic-like effect and the underlying mechanisms involved. In an open field test, EO (500 mg/kg) and β-caryophyllene (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) increased the crossing frequency (P<0.05) and, EO (250 and 500 mg/kg) and β-caryophyllene (200 mg/kg) increased the time spent in the center (P<0.05) without altering total crossings of the open field. EO and β-caryophyllene did not alter the number of falls in the rota-rod test (P>0.05). In the pentobarbital-induced sleep test, EO (500 mg/kg) and β-caryophyllene (200 and 400 mg/kg) decreased the latency to sleep (P<0.05), and EO (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) (P<0.001) and β-caryophyllene (200 and 400 mg/kg) (P<0.05 and P<0.001) increased the sleep time. In anxiety tests, EO (500 mg/kg) and β-caryophyllene (100 and 200 mg/kg) increased head-dipping behavior (P<0.05) in the hole-board test, entries (P<0.05) into and time spent (P<0.05) on the open arms of the elevated plus maze (EPM), and number of transitions (P<0.05) and time spent in the light compartment (P<0.05) of a light-dark box (LDB). We further investigated the mechanism of action underlying the anxiolytic-like effect of EO and β-caryophyllene by pre-treating animals with antagonists of benzodiazepine (flumazenil) and 5-HT(1A) (NAN-190) receptors prior to evaluation using EPM and LDB. The anxiolytic-like effects of EO were significantly reduced by pre-treatment with NAN-190 (P<0.05) but not flumazenil (P>0.05). The anxiolytic-like effects of β-caryophyllene were not blocked by either NAN-190 or flumazenil (P>0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that the essential oil derived from S. odoratissima produces an anxiolytic-like effect without altering motor performance and that this effect is mediated by 5-HT(1A) but not via benzodiazepine receptors. In addition, the major component, β-caryophyllene, also has an anxiolytic-like effect that may contribute to the effects of EO, but this effect does not seem to be mediated via 5-HT(1A) or benzodiazepine receptors.
Kalanchoe pinnata (KP) is popularly used for treating inflammatory diseases. This study investigated the antinociceptive, antiedematogenic, and anti-inflammatory potential of the subcutaneous administration of KP flower aqueous extract (KPFE), its ethyl acetate (EtOAcF) and butanol (BuOHF) fractions, and the main KP flavonoid [quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl (1 → 2) α-L-rhamnopyranoside] (KPFV) in mice, as well as its possible mechanisms of action. KPFE (30–300 mg/kg) and KPFV (1–10 mg/kg) inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing (ID50 = 164.8 and 9.4 mg/kg, resp.). KPFE (300 mg/kg), EtOAcF (12 mg/kg), BuOHF (15 mg/kg), or KPFV (0.3–3.0 mg/kg) reduced leukocyte migration on carrageenan-induced pleurisy (ID50 = 2.0 mg/kg for KPFV). KPFE (3–30 mg/kg) and KPFV (0.3–3.0 mg/kg) reduced the croton oil-induced ear edema (ID50 = 4.3 and 0.76 mg/kg, resp.). KPFE and KPFV reduced the TNF-α concentration in the pleural exudates on carrageenan-induced pleurisy test. Moreover, KPFV inhibited COX-1 (IC50 = 22.1 μg/mL) and COX-2 (IC50 > 50 μg/mL). The selectivity index (COX-1IC50/COX-2IC50) was <0.44. These results indicate that KPFE and KPFV produced antinociceptive, antiedematogenic, and anti-inflammatory activities through COX inhibition and TNF-α reduction, revealing that the main flavonoid in KP flowers and leaves plays an important role in the ethnomedicinal use of the plant.
Gastric ulcer affects people worldwide, and its inefficacy and recurrence have fueled the search for new therapeutic strategies. Despite the well-known use of allantoin in medicines and cosmetic products, its effect has not yet been studied with regard to gastric ulcer. Hence, the aim of the present study was to explore the pharmaco-mechanistic efficacy of allantoin against commonly harmful agents that cause injuries to the stomach. Ethanol, indomethacin, and stress-induced gastric ulcer models were adopted, in addition to pylorus ligature, a quantification of vascular permeability, glutathione (GSH), gastric adhered mucus, prostaglandin (PGE), pro-inflammatory cytokines levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and catalase (CAT) activities. The gastric lesions were examined by gross, histological, and ultrastructural features. The results showed that treatment with allantoin (60mg/kg, per oral) reduced the gastric ulcer formation in all models. Furthermore, allantoin reduced the parameters of gastric acid secretion and attenuated both the vascular permeability and MPO activity. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were also reduced, accompanied by a restoration of CAT activity and GSH levels. Notably, allantoin treatment preserved the gastric-adhered mucus and PGE levels after ethanol administration. Microscopic and ultrastructural analysis revealed that allantoin maintained tissue integrity and prevented morphological changes in cells caused by ethanol. In summary, we demonstrated for the first time that allantoin possesses gastroprotective activity through anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, antisecretory, and cytoprotective mechanisms. The antisecretory and cytoprotective mechanisms are probably associated with an increase in PGE levels.
The pyrazol compounds are known to possess antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. This study was conducted to investigate the peripheral antinociceptive effect of the pyrazole compound 5-(1-(3-Fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2H-tetrazole (LQFM-021) and involvement of opioid receptors and of the NO/cGMP/K(ATP) pathway. The oral treatments in mice with LQFM-021 (17, 75 or 300 mg/kg) decreased the number of writhing. In the formalin test, the treatments with LQFM-021 at doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg reduced the licking time at both neurogenic and inflammatory phases of this test. The treatment of the animals with LQFM-021 (30 mg/kg) did not have antinociceptive effects in the tail-flick and hot plate tests. Furthermore, pre-treatment with naloxone (3 mg/kg i.p.), L-name (10 mg/kg i.p.), ODQ (10 mg/kg i.p.) or glibenclamide (3 mg/kg i.p.) antagonized the antinociceptive effect of LQFM-021 in both phases of the formalin test. In addition, it was also demonstrated that the treatments of mice with LQFM-021(15, 30 and 60 mg/kg) did not compromise the motor activity of the animals in the chimney test. Only the highest dose used in the antinociceptive study promoted changes in the open field test and pentobarbital-induced sleep test, thus ruling out possible false positive effects on nociception tests. Our data suggest that the peripheral antinociception effects of the LQFM-021 were mediated through the peripheral opioid receptors with activation of the NO/cGMP/KATP pathway.
Our study sought to evaluate the anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of oleanolic acid as well as the neural mechanisms involved. Animal models such as barbiturate sleep-induction, light-dark box, elevated plus maze, forced swimming test, tail suspension test and open field test were conducted. Male Albino Swiss mice were treated orally with vehicle 10 mL/kg, fluoxetine 20 mg/kg, imipramine 15 mg/kg, diazepam 1 mg/kg or oleanolic acid 5-40 mg/kg. Pretreatment (intraperitoneal) of animals with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) 20 mg/kg, 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-[4- (2-phthalimido) butyl]piperazine hydrobromide (NAN-190) 0.5 mg/kg, p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA) 100 mg/kg or α-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT) 100 mg/kg, WAY100635 (WAY) 0.3 mg/kg, prazosin (PRAZ) 1 mg/kg, yohimbine 2 mg/kg as well as monoamine oxidase assay and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) quantification were carried out. Oleanolic acid potentiated the hypnotic effect of barbiturate and demonstrated an anxiolytic effect in both the light-dark box and elevated plus maze. This effect was not reversed by PTZ. Acute and/or chronic oral treatment of mice with oleanolic acid (5-20 mg/kg) elicited an antidepressant effect in the forced swimming test and the tail suspension test without interfering with the locomotor activity. The antidepressant effect of oleanolic acid was attenuated by NAN-190, AMPT, PCPA, WAY and PRAZ. Although monoamine oxidase activity remained unaltered by oleanolic acid, chronic administration of oleanolic acid augmented hippocampal BDNF level. These findings demonstrate multiple mechanisms of the anxiolytic and antidepressant effect of oleanolic acid.
EMN have significant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, which appear to be, at least in part, due to the presence of allantoin. However, allantoin is not responsible for the EMN central antinociceptive activity. Allantoin has peripheral antinociceptive activity that involves the opioid receptor and ATP-sensitive K(+)channels. Opioid receptors are also involved in the EMN antinociceptive activity. These findings support the use of Memora nodosa in popular medicine and demonstrate that this plant has therapeutic potential for the development of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory phytomedicines.
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