Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of broiler breeder age and incubator type on hatching parameters, hatch window, embryo diagnosis results, and hatchling physical quality. The treatments consisted of a combination of three broiler breeder ages (29, 35 and 59 weeks of age) and two incubator types (single stage, SS; or and multiple stage, MS). A completely randomized design in a 3x2 factorial arrangement was applied. In Experiment I, 1,896 eggs were used and 360 eggs in Experiment II. There was an interaction between breeder age and incubator type only for hatchling physical quality score. Independently of incubator type, hatchability rate, late embryo mortality, and egg contamination were higher in the eggs laid by older breeders (59-wk-old). Early mortality (0-4 days) was higher in the embryos from young breeders (29-wk-old). A shorter hatch window birth was obtained in the SS incubator, resulting in higher hatchling body weight relative to egg weight, and better hatchling physical quality score. Both types of incubators provide good conditions for embryo development; however, the physical quality of chicks derived from eggs from intermediate-aged breeders (35-wk-old) is better when eggs are incubated in SS incubators.
-The objective of this study was to evaluate a technique for quantifying eggshell conductance using shell fragments from hatched eggs. Additional objectives were to calculate the correlation between eggshell conductance, porosity, and thickness and correlate these parameters with incubation data. The study design was fully randomized in a 3 × 3 factorial scheme (three egg regions -large end, equator, and narrow end -and three ages of broiler breeders -29, 35, and 59 weeks). A total of 216 eggs were used, with 24 repetitions for each treatment. Neither conductance nor shell thickness showed any interaction with egg region. Breeder age influenced eggshell conductance, such that it was greatest in eggshells from 59-week breeders (0.323 mg day −1 torr −1 ), while for 29-week and 35-week breeders, the conductance values found were 0.285 and 0.270 mg day −1 torr −1 , respectively. The eggshell thickness was similar in eggs from 29 and 35-week breeders and these were greater than the thickness of eggshells from 59-week breeders. Correlations between mean eggshell conductance and chick body weight and yolk free chick body weight were found significant. There were no correlations between mean eggshell thickness and any of the data evaluated. There were positive correlations between mean eggshell porosity and egg weight loss up to the time of transfer, chick weight, and yolk free body weight. The technique of using eggshell fragments can be used for measuring eggshell conductance. Eggshell porosity is the characteristic that best correlates with incubation parameters.Key Words: fertile eggs, porosity, shell conductance, shell thickness
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia
Non-ruminantsFull-length research article Effects of placement time on performance and gastrointestinal tract growth of male broiler chickens ABSTRACT -The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of placement time on the performance of broiler chickens and the development of their gastrointestinal tract. Two methodologies for measuring broiler performance were compared, one considering day of pulling as the first day, the other considering day of placement as the first day. A total of 1,056 one-day old male Cobb ® 500 broiler chicks were subjected to treatments of different placement times after pulling from the hatchery: 3, 24, 48, and 72 h. The studied traits were: feed intake, body weight, feed conversion, viability, and gastrointestinal tract development. When day of pulling was considered the first day, feed intake and body weight at 39 days decreased as placement time increased. However, when day of placement was considered the first day, fasting up to 72 h did not have any negative effect on broiler performance at 39 days postplacement. Placement time did not affect yolk sac utilization or liver weight. At nine days post-placement, weights of gizzard + proventriculus, pancreas, and small intestine increased with increasing placement time. At seven days of age, there was no effect of placement time on villus height or crypt depth. It is possible to place broiler chicks up to 72 h post-hatching with no negative effects when day of placement is considered the first day for evaluating broiler performance.
Breeder age and pre‐placement feed are factors that can affect broiler performance during grow out. This study evaluated the effects of breeder age (29 and 55 weeks old) on IgY transference to egg yolk in addition to the effects of breeder age (29 and 55 weeks old) and pre‐placement feed (with or without), in a factorial arrangement, on IgY concentration in chick serum. Forty‐eight eggs were collected from a breeder flock and considered the experimental units. Eighteen chicks from each breeder age were randomly selected to determine IgY at pulling. After 48 h of placement, old breeders had greater egg weight and yolk weight (p ≤ 0.05) than the young ones. Breeder age (p > 0.05) had no effect on IgY concentration of egg yolk. Breeder age (p > 0.05) had no effect on IgY concentration of chick serum at pulling. There was no interaction (p > 0.05) between breeder age and pre‐placement feed for IgY concentration of chick serum at housing. There was also no effect of breeder age or pre‐placement feed during placement time (48 h) on IgY concentration of chick serum at housing (p > 0.05). In conclusion, 48 h of fasting had no effect on IgY concentration in chick serum despite breeder age. It appears that the immunoglobulins from the residual yolk sac are not used as a protein source during the period between hatching and housing.
Hatchery efficiency is based on hatchability and the number of salable chicks. The hatchery sector has been seeking new alternatives to optimize production rates, including the use of different systems (multistage [
] or single-stage [
] machines) to improve incubation conditions. The present study aimed to compare results for hatchability, chick quality, and broiler performance of chicks from 2 incubator systems—MS and SS. The experimental design for hatchability, hatch window, egg weight loss, and chick performance variables was completely randomized with 2 treatments (MS and SS). Performance variables were analyzed as a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (incubator type x chick sex). Egg weight loss between incubation and transfer was higher for eggs incubated in MS (
< 0.05). Hatchability was higher for eggs incubated in SS (
< 0.05), and chicks in SS had a longer hatch window (
< 0.05). Embryo diagnosis revealed higher final mortality for embryos incubated in MS (
< 0.05), as well as higher percentages of alive and dead pipped and cracked eggs (
< 0.05). Physical quality was better for chicks from SS (
< 0.05). There was no interaction between the studied factors for performance results (
> 0.05). Incubator type did not affect broiler performance for any of the studied ages (
> 0.05), whereas male broilers had better performance than females (
< 0.05). The SS incubation system proved better than the MS system at meeting embryo requirements during embryo development, with better hatching rates and chick quality, although performance variables were not influenced by incubation type.
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