BackgroundAnacardium occidentale L phenolic lipid (LDT11) is used in traditional medicine as anti-inflammatory, astringent, antidiarrheal, anti-asthmatic and depurative. Phenolic derivatives, such as anacardic acid, extracted from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) have demonstrated biological and pharmacological properties, and its profile makes it a candidate for the development of new anti-inflammatory agents.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory profile of a derivative, synthesized from LDT11, on an in vitro cellular model.MethodsOrganic synthesis of the phenolic derivative of CNSL that results in the hemi-synthetic compound LDT11. The cytotoxicity of the planned compound, LDT11, was analyzed in murine macrophages cell line, RAW264.7. The cells were previously treated with LDT11, and then, the inflammation was stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in intervals of 6 h and 24 h. The analysis of the gene expression of inflammatory markers (TNFα, iNOS, COX-2, NF-κB, IL-1β and IL-6), nitric oxide (NO) dosage, and cytokine IL-6 were realized.ResultsThe results showed that the phenolic derivative, LDT11, influenced the modulatory gene expression. The relative gene transcripts quantification demonstrated that the LDT11 disclosed an immunoprotective effect against inflammation by decreasing genes expression when compared with cells stimulated with LPS in the control group. The NO and IL-6 dosages confirmed the results found in gene expression.DiscussionThe present study evaluated the immunoprotective effect of LDT11. In addition to a significant reduction in the expression of inflammatory genes, LDT11 also had a faster and superior anti-inflammatory action than the commercial products, and its response was already evident in the test carried out six hours after the treatment of the cells.ConclusionThis study demonstrated LDT11 is potentially valuable as a rapid immunoprotective anti-inflammatory agent. Treatment with LDT11 decreased the gene expression of inflammatory markers, and the NO, and IL-6 production. When compared to commercial drugs, LDT11 showed a superior anti-inflammatory action.
Highlights The SARS-CoV-2 and dengue syndemic is a reality in several countries worldwide. Prior dengue infection did not impact clinical parameters of COVID-19 patients. Active dengue fever worsened the pulmonary function of COVID-19 patients. Active and prior dengue infection were associated with an increase in blood glucose levels.
The COVID-19 outbreak, caused by Sars-Cov-2, was officially declared a global pandemic in February 2020, after an unexpected increase in hospitalization and mortality. When faced with this new disease, social and physical distancing and quarantine emerged as solutions to reduce virus transmission. This article examines the quality of life (QoL) of the Brazilian population’s during this period of isolation, due to the COVID-19 pandemic by analyzing; physical, psychological, social, and economic aspects. An online survey was distributed from 27 May to 14 August of 2020. A total of 1859 surveys were completed. Our results indicate that Brazilians were more affected by economic and social aspects than psychological and physical. Unemployed participants and individuals who tested positive for COVID-19 presented the lowest QoL. Females showed worst QoL scores than males, but having children did not influence the score. Higher educational level was associated with a better perception of QoL. Not following social distancing guidelines presented better scores in the psychological domain than the ones following restrict or partial social distancing rules. This study is the first to evaluate adults’ QoL related to the Sars-Cov-2 pandemic in Brazil at a national level. Our data may help health authorities identify the main factors affecting the QoL of the Brazilian population, thereby orientating them to recover after the pandemic.
Chagas disease affects millions of people, and it is a major cause of death in Latin America. Prevention and development of an effective treatment for this infection can be favored by a more thorough understanding of T. cruzi interaction with the microbiome of vectors and hosts. Next-generation sequencing technology vastly broadened the knowledge about intestinal bacteria composition, showing that microbiota within each host (triatomines and mammals) is composed by high diversity of species, although few dominant phyla. This fact may represent an ecological balance that was acquired during the evolutionary process of the microbiome-host complex, and that serves to perpetuate this system. In this context, commensal microbiota is also essential to protect hosts, conferring them resistance to pathogens colonization. However, in some situations, the microbiota is not able to prevent infection but only modulate it. Here we will review the role of the microbiota on the parasite-vector-host triad with a focus on the kinetoplastida of medical importance Trypanosoma cruzi. Novel strategies to control Chagas disease based on intestinal microbiome will also be discussed.
AGRADECIMENTOSAgradeço primeiramente a Deus que sempre esteve ao meu lado em todos os momentos, que me deu forças e permitiu que eu seguisse em frente para a conclusão desse trabalho.Agradeço a minha mãe Maria Abadia Nogueira e ao meu irmão Rafael Henrique que sempre me apoiaram e confiaram em mim.Ao meu esposo amado Marcelo Henrique Teotônio por todo apoio, compreensão, dedicação e carinho.À minha querida orientadora Yanna Karla Medeiros de Nóbrega, que sempre acreditou na minha capacidade, por sempre ser otimista e me mostrar o lado bom das coisas, por toda paciência e pelo conhecimento transmitido.Ao professor Riccardo Pratesi que é um exemplo de profissional, uma pessoa maravilhosa, simples e humilde, pelas palavras de apoio e por ter contribuído no desenvolvimento desse trabalho.Aos amigos do laboratório que me auxiliaram nos experimentos, ou compartilhando de suas experiências, em especial à Patrícia Fritsch que me transmitiu seus conhecimentos sobre a técnica qPCR e principalmente à Zita Lopes da Silva, que esteve todo tempo ao meu lado, em todos os momentos, seja ajudando na pesquisa ou me consolando nas horas difíceis, levantando minha autoestima.À Adriana Pratesi e a Cristina Simeoni, pelo carinho, paciência, pelos momentos partilhados de conversas e brincadeiras além de todo suporte nas pesquisas. The biological mechanism of inflammation have been considered as complex and highly regulated in the body's defense response to various stimuli and is divided into two phases, such as acute and chronic. Acute inflammation is generally beneficial to the host, reestablishing in a short time the structure and function of tissue and/or organ. However, inflammatory responses do not always occur in such way. Abnormal conditions and inflammatory response become chronic, promoting loss of organ or tissue function, possibly developing diseases. Chronic inflammatory diseases affect millions of people around the world. The development of effective anti-inflammatory and safe drugs should be a priority since side effects among a variety, commercially available, have been reported limiting the application of these agents. Thus, the development of a safe, effective and economic therapy for treatments of inflammatory diseases also present a challenge. In this scenario, medicinal plants ensure a prominent position as a source of natural bioactive molecules. The Pouteria species have been used as a medicinal plant due to its various biological activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of Pouteria torta and Pouteria ramiflora extracts in macrophages inflamed with 1μg / ml LPS RAW 264.7. Cell viability and cytotoxicity were assessed by three methods, WST-8 and neutral red, and the inflammatory response was analyzed by gene expression utilizing the PCR technique in real time, and the dosage of the oxide mediators nitrate (NO) and prostaglandin (PGE2) by spectrophotometric methods and ELISA. Further testing of antioxidant activity using the same methodology was used for the dosage of gl...
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