-Inhibition of α-amylase, enzyme that plays a role in digestion of starch and glycogen, is considered a strategy for the treatment of disorders in carbohydrate uptake, such as diabetes and obesity, as well as, dental caries and periodontal diseases. Plants are an important source of chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and can be used as therapeutic or functional food sources. A review about crude extracts and isolated compounds from plant source that have been tested for α-amylase inhibitory activity has been done. The analysis of the results shows a variety of crude extracts that present α-amylase inhibitory activity and some of them had relevant activity when compared with controls used in the studies. Amongst the phyto-constituents that have been investigated, flavonoids are one of them that demonstrated the highest inhibitory activities with the potential of inhibition related to number of hydroxyl groups in the molecule of the compound. Several phyto-constituents and plant species as α-amylase inhibitors are being reported in this article. Majority of studies have focused on the anti-amylase phenolic compounds.
Background: Current recommendations for the self-management of SARS-Cov-2 disease (COVID-19) include self-isolation, rest, hydration, and the use of NSAID in case of high fever only. It is expected that many patients will add other symptomatic/adjuvant treatments, such as herbal medicines. Aims: To provide a benefits/risks assessment of selected herbal medicines traditionally indicated for "respiratory diseases" within the current frame of the COVID-19 pandemic as an adjuvant treatment. Method: The plant selection was primarily based on species listed by the WHO and EMA, but some other herbal remedies were considered due to their widespread use in respiratory conditions. Preclinical and clinical data on their efficacy and safety were collected from authoritative sources. The target population were adults with early and mild flu symptoms without underlying conditions. These were evaluated according to a modified PrOACT-URL method with paracetamol, ibuprofen, and codeine as reference drugs. The benefits/risks balance of the treatments was classified as positive, promising, negative, and unknown. Results: A total of 39 herbal medicines were identified as very likely to appeal to the COVID-19 patient. According to our method, the benefits/risks assessment of the herbal medicines was found to be positive in 5 cases (Althaea officinalis, Commiphora molmol, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hedera helix, and Sambucus nigra), promising in 12 cases (Allium sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea purpurea, Eucalyptus globulus essential oil, Justicia pectoralis, Magnolia officinalis, Mikania glomerata, Pelargonium sidoides, Pimpinella anisum, Salix sp, Zingiber officinale), and unknown for the rest. On the same grounds, only ibuprofen resulted promising, but we could not find compelling evidence to endorse the use of paracetamol and/or codeine. Conclusions: Our work suggests that several herbal medicines have safety margins superior to those of reference drugs and enough levels of evidence to start a clinical
Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy sauce production. Proteases can be produced in large quantities in a short time by established methods of fermentation. The parameters such as variation in C/N ratio, presence of some sugars, besides several other physical factors are important in the development of fermentation process. Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications.
RESUMO: "Gênero Pouteria: Química e atividade biológica". O gênero Pouteria pertence à família Sapotaceae e pode ser encontrado em muitos continentes. As plantas desse gênero têm sido utilizadas na construção civil, na alimentação e também na medicina popular. Algumas atividades biológicas são reportadas às espécies desse gênero, tais como, antioxidante, anti-inflamatória, antibacteriana e antifúngica, mas seu real potencial como fonte de novos fármacos ainda é pouco conhecido. Assim, uma revisão sobre a composição química e as atividades biológicas de Pouteria é apresentada, com o intuito de estimular a continuação dos estudos das espécies aqui citadas, e a investigação de outras espécies para as quais não foram encontrados relatos.Unitermos: Pouteria, Sapotaceae, triterpenos, flavonoides, plantas medicinais. ABSTRACT:The genus Pouteria belongs to the family Sapotaceae and can be widely found around the World. These plants have been used as building material, as food, because the eatable fruits, as well as remedies in folk medicine. Some biological activities have been reported to species of this genus such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal. However, the real potential of this genus as source of new drugs or phytomedicines remains unknown. Therefore, a review of the so far known chemical composition and biological activities of this genus is presented to stimulate new studies about the species already reported moreover that species have no reference about chemistry or biological activities could be found until now.
Ethanol extracts from medicinal plants commonly used by Governador Valadares people were tested for antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity (BST assay). The field survey was conducted during the years 1997-2000 by means of direct interviews with healing men ("raizeiros") who showed familiarity with local used remedies. A total of 33 crude extracts from 32 plant species was studied. Ten extracts (Costus pisonis,
The genus Myrciaria occurs in various Brazilian biomes. Its species contains several active components, including phenolic compounds, such as tannins, flavonoids, ellagic acid and anthocyanins. Biological activities reported for Myrciaria fruits and leaf and bark extracts include antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal effects. This work aims to provide an overview of the active compounds of Myrciaria, highlighting its secondary metabolites and medicinal properties for stimulating new studies regarding this genus.
The increased amount of melanin leads to skin disorders such as age spots, freckles, melasma and malignant melanoma. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin production. Plants and their extracts are inexpensive and rich resources of active compounds that can be utilized to inhibit tyrosinase as well as can be used for the treatment of dermatological disorders associated with melanin hyperpigmentation. Using in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory activity assay, extracts from 13 plant species from Brazilian Cerrado were evaluated. The results showed that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts presented potent in vitro tyrosinase inhibition compared to positive control kojic acid. Ethanol extract of Eugenia dysenterica leaves showed significant (p<0.05) tyrosinase inhibitory activity exhibiting the IC50 value of 11.88 µg/mL, compared to kojic acid (IC50 value of 13.14 µg/mL). Pouteria torta aqueous extract leaves also showed significant inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 30.01 µg/mL. These results indicate that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts and their isolated constituents are promising agents for skin-whitening or antimelanogenesis formulations.
The present study examined the antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract from Melissa officinalis L. and of the rosmarinic acid in chemical behavioral models of nociception and investigates some of the mechanisms underlying this effect. The extract (3-1000 mg/kg), given orally (p.o.) 1 h prior to testing, produced dose-dependent inhibition of acetic acid-induced visceral pain, with ID50 value of 241.9 mg/kg. In the formalin test, the extract (30-1000 mg/kg, p.o.) also caused significant inhibition of both, the early (neurogenic pain) and the late (inflammatory pain), phases of formalin-induced licking. The extract (10-1000 mg/kg, p.o.) also caused significant and dose-dependent inhibition of glutamate-induced pain, with ID50 value of 198.5 mg/kg. Furthermore, the rosmarinic acid (0.3-3 mg/kg), given p.o. 1 h prior, produced dose-related inhibition of glutamate-induced pain, with ID50 value of 2.64 mg/kg. The antinociception caused by the extract (100 mg/kg, p.o.) in the glutamate test was significantly attenuated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment of mice with atropine (1 mg/kg), mecamylamine (2 mg/kg) or l-arginine (40 mg/kg). In contrast, the extract (100 mg/kg, p.o.) antinociception was not affected by i.p. treatment with naloxone (1 mg/kg) or D-arginine (40 mg/kg). It was also not associated with non-specific effects, such as muscle relaxation or sedation. Collectively, the present results suggest that the extract produced dose-related antinociception in several models of chemical pain through mechanisms that involved cholinergic systems (i.e. through muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors) and the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway. In addition, the rosmarinic acid contained in this plant appears to contribute for the antinociceptive property of the extract. Moreover, the antinociceptive action demonstrated in the present study supports, at least partly, the ethnomedical uses of this plant.
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