Chorological information concerning 182 taxa of monocotyledons endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands was compiled and related to the 100×100 km, 50×50 km and 10×10 km UTM grids. Distributions were analysed using multivariate methods (two‐way indicator species analysis and detrended correspondence analysis) for each scale. Comparison of results allows recognition of several floristic elements and sectors (i.e. Balearic, Murcian‐Almerian, south western) common to all three scales, whereas other regions are assigned to different sectors depending on the grid size considered. As a consequence of the increase in detail, characteristics such as number of sectors, the outline of boundaries and continuity or fragmentation of the areas also change. These factors are discussed.
Phylogenetic imputation has recently emerged as a potentially powerful tool for predicting missing data in functional traits datasets. As such, understanding the limitations of phylogenetic modelling in predicting trait values is critical if we are to use them in subsequent analyses. Previous studies have focused on the relationship between phylogenetic signal and clade‐level prediction accuracy, yet variability in prediction accuracy among individual tips of phylogenies remains largely unexplored. Here, we used simulations of trait evolution along the branches of phylogenetic trees to show how the accuracy of phylogenetic imputations is influenced by the combined effects of 1) the amount of phylogenetic signal in the traits and 2) the branch length of the tips to be imputed. Specifically, we conducted cross‐validation trials to estimate the variability in prediction accuracy among individual tips on the phylogenies (hereafter ‘tip‐level accuracy’). We found that under a Brownian motion model of evolution (BM, Pagel't λ = 1), tip‐level accuracy rapidly decreased with increasing tip branch‐lengths, and only tips of approximately 10% or less of the total height of the trees showed consistently accurate predictions (i.e. cross‐validation R‐squared >0.75). When phylogenetic signal was weak, the effect of tip branch‐length was reduced, becoming negligible for traits simulated with λ < 0.7, where accuracy was in any case low. Our study shows that variability in prediction accuracy among individual tips of the phylogeny should be considered when evaluating the reliability of phylogenetically imputed trait values. To address this challenge, we describe a Monte Carlo‐based method that allows one to estimate the expected tip‐level accuracy of phylogenetic predictions for continuous traits. Our approach identifies gaps in functional trait datasets for which phylogenetic imputation performs poorly, and will help ecologists to design more efficient trait collection campaigns by focusing resources on lineages whose trait values are more uncertain.
The diversity of the Iberian vascular flora has been investigated using WORLDMAP versions 3.08 and 3.18. Two data sets scoring plant distributions as presences within the Iberian Peninsula were compiled; one for 2133 species at 50 × 50 km grid and the other for 801 species at 10 × 10 km map grids. Patterns of biodiversity were determined using the diversity measures of species richness, range‐size rarity and character richness diversity. Using the diversity measures, combined with an area selection method, maps of priority areas were calculated using iterative procedures. Near minimum sets (NMSs) for both scales were calculated. Comparison of the NMS for the 10 × 10 km grid with the near minimum set for existing reserves (NMSER) showed that at least 2% more of the land surface would be required above and beyond the existing protected area network, currently comprising 6% of the area, to ensure representation of all species at least once as listed within the present data‐base. It is demonstrated that reserve systems selected on a variety of different criteria are suboptimal when compared to particular groups of target organisms with a definite goal of representation for conservation. Calculating efficiency of existing reserve systems and accounting for all taxa identifies precisely the extra required areas for the protected area system to satisfy particular goals of representation.
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