Phylogenetic imputation has recently emerged as a potentially powerful tool for predicting missing data in functional traits datasets. As such, understanding the limitations of phylogenetic modelling in predicting trait values is critical if we are to use them in subsequent analyses. Previous studies have focused on the relationship between phylogenetic signal and clade‐level prediction accuracy, yet variability in prediction accuracy among individual tips of phylogenies remains largely unexplored. Here, we used simulations of trait evolution along the branches of phylogenetic trees to show how the accuracy of phylogenetic imputations is influenced by the combined effects of 1) the amount of phylogenetic signal in the traits and 2) the branch length of the tips to be imputed. Specifically, we conducted cross‐validation trials to estimate the variability in prediction accuracy among individual tips on the phylogenies (hereafter ‘tip‐level accuracy’). We found that under a Brownian motion model of evolution (BM, Pagel't λ = 1), tip‐level accuracy rapidly decreased with increasing tip branch‐lengths, and only tips of approximately 10% or less of the total height of the trees showed consistently accurate predictions (i.e. cross‐validation R‐squared >0.75). When phylogenetic signal was weak, the effect of tip branch‐length was reduced, becoming negligible for traits simulated with λ < 0.7, where accuracy was in any case low. Our study shows that variability in prediction accuracy among individual tips of the phylogeny should be considered when evaluating the reliability of phylogenetically imputed trait values. To address this challenge, we describe a Monte Carlo‐based method that allows one to estimate the expected tip‐level accuracy of phylogenetic predictions for continuous traits. Our approach identifies gaps in functional trait datasets for which phylogenetic imputation performs poorly, and will help ecologists to design more efficient trait collection campaigns by focusing resources on lineages whose trait values are more uncertain.
Genes encoding ribosomal RNA are universal key constituents of eukaryotic genomes, but the number of loci varies between species. We assessed the evolutionary trends in site-number changes of rDNA loci during speciation in a lineage of the cabbage family, characterized by complex scenarios of polyploidy. Our results suggest the existence of constrictions to burst loci amplification in the 5S rDNA family in polyploids and an overall trend to further reduce their number. The 45S rDNA site change in polyploids tells a different story, implying loci amplification in most of the polyploid entities.
Pollination efficiency of three of the four bird species visiting flowers of Navaea phoenicea may be high enough to maintain selective pressure on floral traits of a relict pollination syndrome. The behavior of these birds plays a crucial role in their pollination efficiency. Perching, by generalist passerines when visiting N. phoenicea flowers, is the most efficient habit. The frequency and PE of insect visits calls into question their role as legitimate visitors.
Molina-Venegas et al. Phylogenetic Patterns of Extinction Risk Plumbaginaceae. All in all, our results indicate that few phylogenetic clades concentrate a great fraction of the extinction-risk gradient in the endemic flora of the western Mediterranean, and monitoring programs should pay particular attention to these extinction-prone lineages.
Seventeen European endemic plant species were considered extinct but improved taxonomic and distribution knowledge, as well as ex situ collecting activities, brought them out of the extinct status. These species have been now reported into a conservation framework that may promote legal protection, in situ and ex situ conservation.
Español. Se han elaborado los mapas de distribución de los licófitos y helechos del suroccidente europeo (Andorra, España continental, Portugal continental e Islas Baleares) empleando la malla UTM de 10 km de lado. La síntesis corológica incluye citas bibliográficas y fuentes electrónicas georreferenciadas de acceso público para un total de 128 taxones presentes en el territorio.English. Distributions of southwest European lycophytes and ferns (Andorra, mainland Spain, mainland Portugal and the Balearic Islands) have been mapped using the UTM grid of 10 km of side. The chorological compilation includes bibliography and electronic georeferenced sources of public access covering the 128 taxa present in the study area.
We accessed published and unpublished floristic sources to compile a comprehensive species list of the Iberian–Balearic terrestrial vascular flora and generate AFLIBER, an accurate floristic database of georeferenced plant occurrence records.
Main type of variable contained
Species distribution data totalling 1,824,549 plant occurrence records corresponding to 6,456 species and subspecies.
Spatial location and grain
The western Mediterranean, including inland territories of Spain, Portugal and Andorra and the adjacent archipelagos of Berlengas, Columbretes and the Balearic Islands, covered by 6,316 UTM quadrangular grid cells of 10 km resolution.
All distributional trustable records were considered to create the AFLIBER database, most of them dating from the 1960s onwards.
Major taxa and level of measurement
Terrestrial vascular plant species and subspecies.
Data are supplied as comma‐separated text (csv) files.
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