Physical activity is important in obesity prevention, but the effectiveness of different physical activity modalities remains to be determined among children. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-month soccer programme and a traditional physical activity programme on changes in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status in obese boys. Eighty-eight boys (8-12 years; BMI > +2 standard deviations of WHO reference values) participated in one of three groups: soccer, traditional activity and control. Soccer and traditional activity programmes involved 3 sessions per week for 60-90 min at an average intensity of 70-80% of maximal heart rate. Control group participated in activities of normal daily living. All boys participated in school physical education, two sessions per week of 45-90-min. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 months, and included body size and composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. The three groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After 6 months, both intervention groups had significantly lower relative fatness (% fat), waist circumference and total cholesterol, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness, self-esteem, perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity compared with control group. In conclusion, physical activity interventions over 6 months positively influenced several indicators of health status among obese boys. The results also suggested that soccer has the potential as an effective tool for the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity and associated consequences.
Many studies have investigated the protective effects of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol against cell injury, but few have investigated the protective effects of oleuropein aglycones 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid (3,4-DHPEA-EA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid dialdehyde (3,4-DHPEA-EDA). The present work studied and compared the capacity of these four compounds, found at high concentrations in olive oil, to protect red blood cells (RBCs) from oxidative injury. The in vitro oxidative stress of RBCs was induced by the water-soluble radical initiator 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride. RBC changes were evaluated either by optical microscopy or by the amount of hemolysis. All compounds were shown to significantly protect RBCs from oxidative damage in a dose-dependent manner. The order of activity at 20 microM was: 3,4-DHPEA-EDA > hydroxytyrosol > oleuropein > 3,4-DHPEA-EA. Even at 3 microM, 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and hydroxytyrosol still had an important protective activity. However, deleterious morphological RBC changes were much more evident in the presence of hydroxytyrosol than with 3,4-DHPEA-EDA. For the first time it was demonstrated that 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, one of most important olive oil polyphenols, may play a noteworthy protective role against ROS-induced oxidative injury in human cells since lower doses of this compound were needed to protect RBCs in vitro from oxidative mediated hemolysis.
Background. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients under hemodialysis (HD) have high mortality rate. Inflammation, dyslipidemia, disturbances in erythropoiesis, iron metabolism, endothelial function, and nutritional status have been reported in these patients. Our aim was to identify any significant association of death with these disturbances, by performing a two-year follow-up study. Methods and Results. A large set of data was obtained from 189 HD patients (55.0% male; 66.4 ± 13.9 years old), including hematological data, lipid profile, iron metabolism, nutritional, inflammatory, and endothelial (dys)function markers, and dialysis adequacy. Results. 35 patients (18.5%) died along the follow-up period. Our data showed that the type of vascular access, C-reactive protein (CRP), and triglycerides (TG) are significant predictors of death. The risk of death was higher in patients using central venous catheter (CVC) (Hazard ratio [HR] =3.03, 95% CI = 1.49–6.13), with higher CRP levels (fourth quartile), compared with those with lower levels (first quartile) (HR = 17.3, 95% CI = 2.40–124.9). Patients with higher TG levels (fourth quartile) presented a lower risk of death, compared with those with the lower TG levels (first quartile) (HR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.05–0.58). Conclusions. The use of CVC, high CRP, and low TG values seem to be independent risk factors for mortality in HD patients.
Human erythrocyte peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2) is a typical 2-cys cytosolic peroxiredoxin with thiol-dependent hydrogen peroxide scavenger activity. In a previous work, we reported Prx2 erythrocyte membrane linkage in some Hereditary Spherocytosis patients and that it seemed to be related to oxidative stress. The aim of the present work was to determine if Prx2 linkage to erythrocyte membrane could be induced by oxidative stress mediated by H(2)O(2) and to further understand how and why this process occurs. We performed in vitro assays in which catalase or both Hb autoxidation and catalase were inhibited, under H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress conditions. Erythrocyte membrane linked Prx2 was detected by immunoblotting and quantified by densitometry. As oxidative stress markers, we determined membrane bound hemoglobin and lipid peroxidation, and we found that their values increased with H(2)O(2) concentration. Prx2 linkage to the membrane also rose with increasing H(2)O(2) concentration, and was only observed when the oxidized form of the enzyme was present in the cytosol. Oxidized Hb and Prx2 membrane linkages appear to be independent processes, although, both result from oxidative stress and may be useful as oxidative stress and/or erythrocyte damage/senescence markers.
Moderate reductions in adiposity improve proinflammatory status in obese children and adolescents. A more substantial reduction in BMIzsc was associated with a greater increment in adiponectin and reduction in leptin.
Recent studies of chitosan have increased the interest in its conversion to chitooligosaccharides (COSs) because these compounds are water-soluble and have potential use in several biomedical applications. Furthermore, such oligomers may be more advantageous than chitosans because of their much higher absorption profiles at the intestinal level, which permit their facilitated access to systemic circulation and potential distribution throughout the entire human body. In that perspective, it is important to clarify their effect on blood further, namely, on human red blood cells (RBCs). The aim of this work was thus to study the effect of two COS mixtures with different molecular weight (MW) ranges, <3 and <5 kDa, at various concentrations (5.0-0.005 mg/mL) on human RBCs. The interactions of these two mixtures with RBC membrane proteins and with hemoglobin were assessed, and the RBC morphology and surface structure were analyzed by optical microscopy (OM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In the presence of either COS mixture, no significant hemolysis was observed; however, at COS concentrations >0.1 mg/mL, changes in membrane binding hemoglobin were observed. Membrane protein changes were also observed with increasing COS concentration, including a reduction in both alpha- and beta-spectrin and in band 3 protein, and the development of three new protein bands: peroxiredoxin 2, calmodulin, and hemoglobin chains. Morphologic evaluation by OM showed that at high concentrations COSs interact with RBCs, leading to RBC adhesion, aggregation, or both. An increase in the roughness of the RBC surface with increasing COS concentration was observed by AFM. Overall, these findings suggest that COS damage to RBCs was dependent on the COS MW and concentration, and significant damage resulted from either a higher MW or a greater concentration (>0.1 mg/mL).
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