Cytomegalovirus infection is a frequent complication after transplantation. This infection occurs due to transmission from the transplanted organ, due to reactivation of latent infection, or after a primary infection in seronegative patients and can be defined as follows: latent infection, active infection, viral syndrome or invasive disease. This condition occurs mainly between 30 and 90 days after transplantation. In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in particular, infection usually occurs within the first 30 days after transplantation and in the presence of graft-versus-host disease. The major risk factors are when the recipient is cytomegalovirus seronegative and the donor is seropositive as well as when lymphocyte-depleting antibodies are used.There are two methods for the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection: the pp65 antigenemia assay and polymerase chain reaction. Serology has no value for the diagnosis of active disease, whereas histology of the affected tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage analysis are useful in the diagnosis of invasive disease.Cytomegalovirus disease can be prevented by prophylaxis (the administration of antiviral drugs to all or to a subgroup of patients who are at higher risk of viral replication) or by preemptive therapy (the early diagnosis of viral replication before development of the disease and prescription of antiviral treatment to prevent the appearance of clinical disease). The drug used is intravenous or oral ganciclovir; oral valganciclovir; or, less frequently, valacyclovir. Prophylaxis should continue for 90 to 180 days. Treatment is always indicated in cytomegalovirus disease, and the gold-standard drug is intravenous ganciclovir. Treatment should be given for 2 to 3 weeks and should be continued for an additional 7 days after the first negative result for viremia.
We sought to identify and understand the health care needs of young people living with HIV/AIDS, particularly in terms of their psychosocial well-being. We conducted a qualitative analysis of HIV-positive young people and their caregivers, focusing on the implications of an HIV diagnosis for health care needs. Stigma was a recurrent issue that arose in the interviews conducted with the respondents, and it was evident that youths had been denied many rights related to health. We concluded that young people living with HIV need comprehensive care based on a human rights approach. In this regard, we offer some practical recommendations for health programs.
Antiretroviral therapy contributes to decreasing morbidity and mortality, and ultimately to increasing survival. In Brazil, there are regional differences in HIV epidemiology regarding pregnant women and children with HIV/AIDS. This study evaluates survival time after AIDS diagnosis in 914 children infected by mother-to-child transmission, reported between 1983 and 1998 and followed until 2002, in Brazil's five regions. Time between birth and HIV diagnosis decreased over the years, mainly in the South and Southeast Regions. There was a significant improvement in survival; more than 75% of cases were still living four years after diagnosis in the 1997-1998 group. This Brazilian study demonstrates that even with regional inequalities in health care infrastructure it is possible for a developing country to establish an effective system of universal and free access to antiretroviral therapy that produces a significant increase in survival for children with AIDS.
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of factors associated with oral colonization by Candida spp. in pediatric patients with AIDS. The sample comprised of 117 children. Clinical status, medicines in use, and laboratory findings were obtained from hospital records; sociodemographic data were given by relatives. A dental examination assessed the prevalence of dental caries. The prevalence of oral colonization by Candida was 62%. Only seven children presented clinical manifestation of oral candidosis despite their high viral load index and low-for-age CD4 count. Candida colonization was directly associated with frequent use of antibiotics (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.44), sulfa drugs (PR = 1.23), alteration in the oral mucosa (PR = 1.55), and untreated dental caries (PR = 1.93). It was inversely associated with the use of antiretroviral therapies (PR = 0.65). Candida albicans was the most frequently detected species (80%); phenotypic tests did not detect C. dubliniensis strains. This study observed a low prevalence of Candida-related oral lesions in these patients, which is compatible with the hypothesis that antiretroviral medicines may have contributed to reducing oral manifestations from Candida infection. The high prevalence of Candida colonization in HIV+/AIDS children with untreated dental caries reinforces the importance of oral health care in interdisciplinary health units that assist these patients.
The objective of this study is to characterize survival in children with AIDS diagnosed in Brazil between 1999-2002, compared with the first national study (1983-1998). This national retrospective cohort study examined a representative sample of Brazilian children exposed to HIV from mother-to-child transmission and followed through 2007. The survival probability after 60 months was analyzed by sex, year of birth and death, clinical classification, use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prophylaxis for opportunistic diseases. 920 children were included. The survival probability increased: comparing cases diagnosed before 1988 with those diagnosed from 2001-2002 it increased by 3.5-fold (from 25% to 86.3%). Use of ART, initial clinical classification, and final classification were significant (p < 0.001) predictors of survival. Issues regarding quality of records and care were identified. The results point to the success of the Brazilian policy of providing ART. The improvement of clinical status contributes to quality of life, while indicating challenges, particularly practices to improve long-term care.
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