Tick-borne pathogens affect a wide range of vertebrate hosts. To identify tick-borne pathogens among dogs from Campo Grande, MS, Brazil testing seropositive for Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi), a serological and molecular study was conducted to detect Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys and Babesia vogeli in 60 serum and spleen samples. A confirmatory diagnosis of L. infantum based on serological and molecular assays was also performed, as was sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis to assess the identity of the parasite species infecting these animals. IgG antibodies to Ehrlichia spp., B. vogeli and L. infantum were found, respectively, in 39 (65%), 49 (81.6%) and 60 (100%) of the sampled dogs. Twenty-seven (45%), fifty-four (90%), fifty-three (88.3%), two (3.3%) and one (1.6%) dog were positive, respectively, for E. canis, Leishmania spp., Leishmania donovani complex, Babesia sp. and Anaplasma sp. in PCR assays. After sequencing, the amplicons showed 99% of identity with E. canis, B. vogeli, A. platys and Leishmania chagasi isolates. The findings of this study indicate that L. infantum-seropositive dogs from Campo Grande are exposed to multiple tick-borne pathogens, which should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis of dogs with clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis.Keywords: Ehrlichia canis, Babesia vogeli, Anaplasma platys, Leishmania infantum, dogs, co-infection.
ResumoPatógenos transmitidos por carrapatos atingem uma variedade de hospedeiros vertebrados. Para identificar os agentes patogênicos transmitidos por carrapatos entre cães soropositivos para Leishmania infantum no município Campo Grande-MS, foi realizado um estudo sorológico e molecular para a detecção de Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys e Babesia vogeli em 60 amostras de soro e baço, respectivamente. Adicionalmente, foi realizado o diagnóstico confirmatório de L. infantum por meio de técnicas sorológicas e moleculares. Também foi realizado o alinhamento e análise filogenética das sequências para indicar a identidade das espécies de parasitas que infectam esses animais. Anticorpos IgG anti-Ehrlichia spp., anti-B. vogeli e anti-L. infantum foram detectados em 39 (65%), 49 (81,6%) e 60 (100%) dos cães amostrados, respectivamente. Vinte e sete (45%), cinquenta e quatro (90%), cinquenta e três (88,3%), dois (3,3%) e um (1,6%) cães mostraram-se positivos na PCR para E. canis, Leishmania spp., Leishmania donovani complex, Babesia sp. e Anaplasma sp., respectivamente. Após o seqüenciamento, os amplicons mostraram 99% de similaridade com isolados de E. canis, B. vogeli e A. platys e Leishmania chagasi. Os resultados deste estudo indicaram que os cães soropositivos para L. infantum de Campo Grande, MS, são expostos a vários agentes transmitidos por carrapatos, e, portanto, devem ser incluídos no diagnóstico diferencial em cães com suspeita clínica de leishmaniose.
a monoxenous trypanosomatid considered restricted to insects, was recently reported to infect a bat. Herein,
has been demonstrated to have a wider range of vertebrate hosts and distribution in Brazilian biomes than once thought. Parasites isolated from haemocultures were characterized using V7V8 SSU rDNA and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes. Coatis (
) in the Cerrado; marmosets (
sp.) and bats (
Myotis lavali, M. izecksohni
) in the Atlantic Forest; crab-eating foxes (
) and ocelot (
) in the Pantanal biomes were infected by trypanosomatids that displayed choanomastigote forms in haemoculture in Giemsa-stained slide smears. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic inference confirmed the infection of
in these animals. Moreover, slight differences in
sequences were observed.
growth curves were counted at 27°C, 36°C and 37°C, and the morphotypes were able to grow and survive for up to 16 days. Serological titers for
were observed in nonhuman primates, demonstrating that this parasite is able to induce a humoral immune response in an infected mammal. These results showed that host specificity in trypanosomatids is complex and far from understood.
Due to the rapid growth of urban environments, interactions between animals and humans in cities are increasingly common. Large mammals, such as capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), provide benefits to people and biodiversity of urban areas, but can also result in conflicts, such as animal–vehicle collisions or disease transmission. As a consequence, understanding the space use of urban capybara, and the effect of human activity on capybaras, is conducive to the promotion of coexistence. We studied the home range and the role of human disturbance on activity and habitat selection of urban capybaras in the city of Campo Grande (Brazil). We monitored nine groups of capybaras living at four parks: two parks subjected to high human visitation on workdays and two on weekends. Home range of the urban capybaras in the study is larger than those reported in previous studies of wild capybaras. The capybaras under study presented a bimodal activity pattern, which was delayed on days of high human presence, increasing animals’ nocturnality. In addition, habitat selection was completely altered on days of high human presence, leading animals to increase avoidance of urban areas and reversing the selectivity patterns for forests, grasslands, and water bodies, that capybaras show on days with low human presence. Even when completely surrounded by an anthropic environment, our results indicate that a mosaic of grasslands near a water body and forested areas will allow capybaras to maintain daily activity and large home ranges. However, human presence significantly altered the daily activity patterns and habitat selection of capybara. Urban planners should account for these data to improve the coexistence of capybaras with humans and thereby minimize the potential for conflicts.
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