Borneol, a bicyclic monoterpene, has been evaluated for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities were studied by measuring nociception by acetic acid, formalin, hot plate, and grip strength tests, while inflammation was prompted by carrageenan-induced peritonitis. The rotarod test was used to evaluate motor coordination. Borneol produced a significant (P < 0.01) reduction of the nociceptive behavior at the early and late phases of paw licking and reduced the writhing reflex in mice (formalin and writhing tests, resp.). When the hot plate test was conducted, borneol (in higher dose) produced an inhibition (P < 0.05) of the nociceptive behavior. Such results were unlikely to be provoked by motor abnormality. Additionally, borneol-treated mice reduced the carrageenan-induced leukocytes migration to the peritoneal cavity. Together, our results suggest that borneol possess significant central and peripheral antinociceptive activity; it has also anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, borneol did not impair motor coordination.
Morus nigra has been used popularly for several proposes, including diabetic. In an attempt to support medicinal value, the acute hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects of the ethanolic extract of Morus nigra (EEMn 200 or 400 mg/kg b.w.) were evaluated in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic treated for 14 days. Serum biochemical and antioxidant analysis were performed at the end of experiment. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed at 10th and 15th days. Chromatographic analysis by HPLC-DAD of EEMn was performed. Insulin was used as positive control to glycemic metabolism as well as fenofibrate to lipid metabolism. EEMn (400 mg/kg/day) reduced fasting and postprandial glycaemia, improved oral glucose tolerance, and reduced lipolysis and proteolysis in diabetic rats. EEMn decreased the blood levels of total cholesterol and increased HDL level when compared to the diabetic control rats. At higher levels, EEMn reduced triglycerides and VLDL levels in diabetic rats. Also, EEMn reduced malondialdehyde and increased the reduced glutathione levels in liver of diabetic rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the presence of the flavonoids rutin, isoquercetin, and kaempferitrin. Acute EEMn treatment reduced hyperglycemia, improved oral glucose tolerance, and minimized dyslipidemia and oxidative stress leading to a reduction in atherogenic index in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
This study was carried out to assess the antibacterial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of extracts of Morus nigra L. HPLC was used to determine the fingerprint chromatogram of the crude ethanolic extract (Mn-EtOH). The antibacterial effect was assessed through the method of microdilution. The cytotoxicity was tested against human tumour cell lines using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also assessed through the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching methods. The presence of phenolic compounds in Mn-EtOH was confirmed using HPLC. The extracts showed activity against most microorganisms tested. The extracts did not show any expressive antiproliferative effect in the assessment of cytotoxicity. The most significant total phenolic content was 153.00 ± 11.34 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g to the ethyl acetate extract (AcOEt). The total flavonoid content was 292.50 ± 70.34 mg of catechin equivalent/g to the AcOEt extract, which presented the best antioxidant activity (IC 50 50.40 ± 1.16 μg/mL) for DPPH scavenging. We can conclude that this species shows strong antibacterial and antioxidant activities, as well as weak cytotoxic effects.Keywords: antibacterial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, Moraceae, Morus nigra. Avaliação das atividades antibacteriana, citotóxica e antioxidante de Morus nigra L. (Moraceae) ResumoEste estudo foi realizado para avaliar as atividades antibacteriana, citotóxica e antioxidante de extratos de Morus nigra L. HPLC foi utilizado para determinar o perfil de compostos fenólicos do extrato etanólico bruto (Mn-EtOH). O efeito antibacteriano foi avaliado através do método de microdiluição. A citotoxicidade foi testada contra linhagens celulares de tumores humanos utilizando o ensaio do brometo de 3-(4,5-dimetil-2-tiazolil)-2,5-difenil-2H-tetrazólio (MTT). O conteúdo total de compostos fenólicos e flavonoides também foi avaliado por meio dos métodos de Folin-Ciocalteu e cloreto de alumínio, respectivamente. A atividade antioxidante dos extratos foi avaliada por meio do sequestro do radical livre 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH) e co-oxidação do sistema β-caroteno-ácido linoleico. A presença de compostos fenólicos em Mn-EtOH foi confirmada utilizando HPLC. Os extratos mostraram atividade contra a maioria dos microrganismos testados. Os extratos não mostraram qualquer efeito antiproliferativo expressivo na avaliação da citotoxicidade. O conteúdo fenólico total mais significativo foi de 153,00 ± 11,34 mg de equivalente de ácido gálico/g para o extrato acetato de etila (AcOEt). O conteúdo de flavonoides totais foi de 292,50 ± 70,34 mg de equivalente de catequina/g para o extrato AcOEt, que apresentou a melhor atividade antioxidante (IC 50 50,40 ± 1,16 mg/mL) para o sequestro do DPPH. Podemos concluir que esta espécie apres...
In this study, the phytochemical profile of extracts from the flowers of Bromelia laciniosa was characterized. The total phenolic and flavonoids contents were determined and the antioxidant and photoprotective activities were evaluated using in vitro assays. Phytochemical analysis demonstrated that the extracts were found to be positive for the presence of anthracene derivatives, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids and tannins, lignans, mono and diterpenes. The ethanol extract (Bl-EtOH) presented the most significant total phenolic content (53.75 § 1.25 mg GAE/g). The dichloromethane extract (Bl-CH 2 Cl 2 ) showed the highest flavonoid content (46.06 § 1.18 mg CE/g). The methanol extract (Bl-MeOH) was the most effective extract in the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil) assay (EC 50 141.90 § 3.01 mg/mL). Bl-EtOH and Bl-MeOH showed higher sun protection factor at a concentration of 100 mg/L (3.38 § 0.04 and 3.78 § 0.11, respectively). Therefore, the extracts proved to be interesting for the development of new studies aiming their incorporation into photoprotective cosmetic formulations.
The antioxidant and photoprotective activities of dried extracts from the leaves of Encholirium spectabile were investigated. It was also evaluated the total phenolic and flavonoid contents by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching and compared with ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) used as reference compounds. The photoprotective effect was evaluated by the spectrophotometric method. The most significant total phenolic and flavonoid contents was of 188.50 ± 27.50 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g and 129.70 ± 4.59 mg of catechin equivalent/g, respectively, for chloroform fraction (Es-CHCl3). The Es-CHCl3 also presented the best antioxidant activity (IC50 25.35 ± 4.35 μg/ml) for DPPH scavenging. The ethanol extract (Es-EtOH), Es-CHCl3 and the fraction ethyl acetate (Es-AcOEt) showed characteristic absorption bands in regions UVB and UVA in a concentration-dependent manner. Es-CHCl3 presented the highest sun protection factor SPF (8.89 ± 2.11). It shows the possibility to use this extract as sunscreen in pharmaceutical preparations.
This study demonstrated the effect of Morus nigra leaf extract during ovine ovarian tissue transportation on the survival and apoptosis of preantral follicles in vitro. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the fingerprint chromatogram of the crude ethanolic extract. Four pairs of ovaries from four sheep were collected. The ovarian cortex was fragmented and one fragment was fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde and processed for histological and TUNEL analyses (fresh control). The other fragments were placed in Minimal Essential Medium (MEM -control medium) or M. nigra extract (0.025; 0.05 or 0.1 mg/mL) and stored (simulating transport) at 4ºC for 6, 12 or 24 h. Preserved fragments (6 h) were also destined to histological and TUNEL analyses. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of antioxidant compounds (rutin, isoquercetin e kaempferitrin) in the extract. There was a decrease (P < 0.05) in the percentage of morphologically normal preantral follicles after preservation in all treatments compared to the fresh control. The percentage of normal preantral follicles after preservation in M. nigra at 0.05 mg/mL for 6 h was higher (P < 0.05) than in MEM or 0.025 mg/ mL M. nigra and similar (P > 0.05) to 0.1 mg/mL of the extract. Apoptosis increased (P < 0.05) after conservation for 6 h in all treatments compared to the fresh control. Moreover, TUNEL positive cells decreased (P < 0.05) after preservation in 0.05 or 0.1 mg/mL M. nigra compared to MEM or 0.025 mg/ mL M. nigra. In conclusion, 0.05 mg/mL M. nigra extract can be used as a preservation medium for ovine ovarian tissue at 4°C for up to 6 h. ResumoEste estudo demonstrou o efeito do extrato das folhas de Morus nigra durante o transporte na sobrevivência e apoptose de folículos pré-antrais in vitro. A CLAE (Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência) foi usada para determinar a impressão digital cromatográfica do extrato etanólico. Foram coletados 4 pares de ovários de 4 ovelhas. O córtex ovariano foi fragmentado e um dos fragmentos foi fixado em formaldeído tamponado a 10% e destinado às análises histológica e de TUNEL (controle fresco). Os demais fragmentos foram colocados em Meio Essencial Mínimo (MEM -meio controle) ou extrato de M. nigra (0,025, 0,05 ou 0,1 mg/mL) e conservados (simulando transporte) à 4 ºC por 6, 12 ou 24 h. Os fragmentos conservados (6 h) também foram destinados às análises histológica e de TUNEL. A análise de CLAE confirmou a presença de compostos antioxidantes (rutina, isoquercetina e canferitrina) no extrato. Houve uma redução (P < 0,05) na percentagem de folículos pré-antrais morfologicamente normais após conservação em todos os tratamentos em comparação com o controle fresco. A percentagem de folículos pré-antrais normais após conservação em M. nigra a 0,05 mg/mL por 6 h foi maior (P < 0,05) do que em MEM ou M. nigra a 0,025 mg/mL e similar (P > 0,05) ao extrato a 0,1 mg/mL. A apoptose aumentou (P < 0,05) após conservação durante 6 h em todos os tratamentos em comparação com o controle fresco. Além diss...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities and cytotoxicity of fractions from Selaginella convoluta, obtained by liquid-liquid extraction using hexane (Sc-Hex), chloroform (Sc-CHCl 3 ) and ethyl acetate (Sc-AcOEt). The phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride methods, respectively. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and b-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching test. The antibacterial effect was evaluated by the method of microdilution and the cytotoxicity analysis in HCT-116 (colon), OVCAR-8 (ovarian) and SF-295 (brain) cells were carried out for MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) test. The fractions were positive for the presence of anthracene derivatives, flavonoids, lignans, naphthoquinones, steroids and triterpenoids. The Sc-Hex and Sc-AcOEt showed good antioxidant activities. The fractions of S. convoluta demonstrated antibacterial activity and showed weak cytotoxicity. These activities were correlated with presence of phenolic compounds in active fractions.
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