This study investigated the relationships between antisocial traits and compliance with COVID-19 containment measures. The sample consisted of 1578 Brazilian adults aged 18–73 years who answered facets from the PID-5, the Affective resonance factor of the ACME, and a questionnaire about compliance with containment measures. Latent profile analyses indicated a 2-profile solution: the antisocial pattern profile which presented higher scores in Callousness, Deceitfulness, Hostility, Impulsivity, Irresponsibility, Manipulativeness, and Risk-taking, as well as lower scores in Affective resonance; and the empathy pattern profile which presented higher scores in Affective resonance and lower scores in ASPD typical traits. The latent profile groups showed significant differences between them and interaction with the containment measures and weeks. The antisocial and empathy groups showed significant differences. These differences were sustained in the interaction with the containment measures and weeks separately, but not when all were interacting together. Our findings indicated that antisocial traits, especially lower levels of empathy and higher levels of Callousness, Deceitfulness, and Risk-taking, are directly associated with lower compliance with containment measures. These traits explain, at least partially, the reason why people continue not adhering to the containment measures even with increasing numbers of cases and deaths.
Aim of the studyOur study investigates associations between social isolation and indicators of general mental health, well-being, depression, anxiety, loneliness, and stress in Brazilian adults. Variables to measure aspects to ease the isolation impact (ease-isolating variables) were also included.Subject or material and methods539 Brazilian adults were recruited by convenience from March 25 to April 07, 2020. We administered a questionnaire on isolation behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic, the WHO-5, the GHQ-12, the CLA, the GAD-7, the PSS-10, and the CES-D. To analyze data, we relied upon the network analysis approach.ResultsCOVID-19 isolation variables showed positive relationships with mental health indicators, and ease-isolating variables presented mixed associations with mental health indicators. For instance, satisfaction with the quality of social interactions connected strongly and positively with the well-being variable, while negatively with loneliness and general psychological symptoms.DiscussionOur hypotheses were partially confirmed.ConclusionsWe can conclude that the damage to mental health associated with social isolation during the pandemic can be minimized by maintaining satisfactory interpersonal relationships. We have three direct recommendations: mental health professionals should (a) elaborate strategies that contemplate the use of virtual tools to alleviate depressive feelings resulting from isolation, (b) give particular attention to risk groups that are most impacted by the isolation imposed by a pandemic situation and may suffer from loneliness, and (c) consider anxiety control strategies for the anxiogenic adverse reaction generated by the worldwide alert in times of disease outbreaks.
Abstract. This study aimed to verify the scope and limitations of the stimuli of indicators of Color (C), Human movement (M), and Response number (R) of the Zulliger test through a qualitative analysis of the stimuli present in the Zulliger and the Rorschach, comparisons in expressions of C, M, and R, and R relations with evaluative inconsistencies on Zulliger. Taking the Rorschach as a reference, the qualitative analysis indicated a variation from little equivalence up to an overrepresentativeness of Zulliger stimuli. The comparisons, made with a sample of 51 subjects tested with the Zulliger and Rorschach tests and divided into concordant and discordant groups according to the evaluation of instruments, revealed a significant decrease of C and M for the Zulliger. We also identified a tendency toward a decrease of R on Zulliger for the discordant group. The results reveal distinctions between the instruments, limitations of the Zulliger, and instigate investigations for the R-Optimized Administration.
The assessment of personality in pathologic levels is a field that requires investment. This study aimed to review the Dependency Dimension of the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory (IDCP). The study was conducted through the development of new items based on the literature, and by investigating the psychometric properties in a sample of 199 participants, aged between 18 and 54 years (M = 26.37, SD = 8.13), 71.4% female, who responded to the IDCP, the NEO-PI-R, and the PID-5. The first step resulted in 57 items that were tested psychometrically. Then, the dimension remained with 18 items, with internal consistency of .89, and three factors: Self-devaluation, Avoidance of abandonment, and Insecurity, with internal consistency between .79 and .91. The expected correlations coefficients were found between the Dependency dimension and the correlated dimensions and facets of the NEO-PI-R and PID-5. The results evidence the adequacy of the revised dimension.
The systematic review refers to the literature review guided by scientific methods explicitly intended to reduce bias, resulting in a synthesis of all relevant evidence for a given issue. In Brazil, specifically in Psychology, systematic review is found in the literature; however, the available studies do not always reflect the gold standard or what is expected in terms of typical systematic review procedures. The present study is structured in the form of a didactic guide, organized in topics, which should be typically contemplated in an systematic review in Psychology. The information that must be contained in each of these topics is indicated, including which procedures should be performed in the typical steps of the development of an systematic review. The present publication intends to increase the interest and investment of researchers in systematic review, providing them with information to improve the quality of systematic review in the area of Psychology in Brazil.
Abstract:The assessment of personality disorders assumes unquestioned clinical relevance when considering the prevalence rates in the general population. Tests assessing the typical pathological traits of these disorders has been adapted to and developed in Brazil. However, there is a gap in the country of screening tools for personality disorders. Screening tools are designed to allow a fast and informative application on the likelihood of a positive diagnosis, where the consequence should be conveyed to a diagnostic assessment. Using as a base the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory (IDCP), developed at the national level, the objective of this research was to develop a screening tool for personality disorders, as well as investigate its diagnostic accuracy. The study included 1,196 people, aging between 18 and 73 years (M = 26.32, SD = 8.69), and 64.1% female. The sample was divided into clinical and non-clinical group. We used an empirical approach based on criteria for selection of items similar to those adopted in the development of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was used (MMPI). The logistic regression analysis and also the calculation of Cohen´s d indicated the items that best discriminate against people with personality disorders and those without this diagnosis. We achieved a final set of 15 items with satisfactory sensitivity and specificity for screening test. We discusses the strengths and limitations of screening version of the IDCP and guidelines for further study.
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