Background: Although the laparoscopic access is becoming the preferable treatment for femoral hernia, there are only few studies on this important subject. Aim: To assess the outcomes of the totally extraperitoneal laparoscopic (TEP) access in the treatment of femoral hernia. Methods: Data of 62 patients with femoral hernia who underwent herniorrhaphy were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnosis of femoral hernia was established by clinical and/or imaging exams in 55 patients and by laparoscopic findings in seven. Results: There were 55 (88.7%) females and 7 (11.3%) males, with female to male ratio of 8:1. The mean age was of 58.9±15.9 years, ranging from 22 to 92 years. Most patients (n=53; 85.5%) had single hernia and the remaining (n=9; 14.5%) bilateral, making a total of 71 hernias operated. Prior lower abdominal operations were recorded in 21 (33.9%) patients. Conversion to laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal procedure was performed in four (6.5%). Open herniorrhaphy was needed in two (3.2%), one with spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula in the groin region (Richter’s hernia) and the another with incidental perforation of the adjacent small bowel that occurred during dissection of hernia sac. There was no mortality. Conclusion: Femoral hernia is uncommon, and it may be associated with potentially severe complications. Most femoral hernias may be successfully treated with totally extraperitoneal laparoscopic access, with low conversion and complication rates.
Objective: The aim of this current report was to present a critical review of the use of cannabidiol (CBD) in the treatment of refractory epilepsies in the pediatric population. Data source: Literature review was carried out in the Medline (PubMed), Cochrane, and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) databases with the descriptors “Cannabidiol” and “Epilepsy.” The search was not limited by the date of publication, language, or study design. A total of 69 articles were included in the review. Data synthesis: The efficacy of CBD in treating epileptic seizures has been confirmed by randomized controlled trials for Lennox–Gastaut syndrome, Dravet syndrome, and tuberous sclerosis complex. The incidence of side effects reported in subjects of the studies is high. However, most studies indicate a good safety profile and tolerance to the drug, with most of the adverse effects being mild to moderate and transient. Conclusions: There is no consensus on the release of CBD as a therapeutic tool by the drug regulatory agencies worldwide. However, the use of CBD is promising since it has presented satisfactory results in crisis control in well-designed studies. In addition, this drug has a good safety and tolerance profile. However, further studies with a long follow-up period are needed to confirm its usefulness and the long-term safety in pediatric patients.
Background and Objectives: There is a dearth of studies on laparoscopic treatment of female groin hernia. Our study assessed the outcome of groin hernia repair in females employing the totally extraperitoneal laparoscopic (TEP) access.Methods: Data of all females who were subjected to laparoscopic groin herniorrhaphy, from August 1998 to February 2020 were retrospectively obtained. Groin hernia repair was routinely started with TEP access.Results: A total of 2,399 patients who underwent laparoscopic groin herniorrhaphy, 254 (10.6%), were females. Most females (n = 191; 75.2%) had single hernia and the remaining (n = 63; 24.8%) had bilateral hernias, making a total of 317 hernias operated. Indirect inguinal hernia was the most common hernia type (72.5%), followed by femoral hernia (17.4%) and direct hernia (10.1%). Prior lower abdominal operations were recorded in 97 (38.2%) patients. Conversion to a laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal procedure was performed due to technical difficulties to dissect the preperitoneal space in 17 patients (6.7%) and to open procedure in only one patient (0.4%) with incarcerated femoral hernia in whom an incidental perforation of the small bowel occurred. Intra-and postoperative complications occurred in 12 (4.7%) and 15 (5.9%) patients, respectively. There was no mortality. Most patients (n = 221; 87%) were discharged on the same day of the operation. Hernia recurrence was diagnosed in 6 patients (2.4%). Conclusion:It is concluded that females with groin hernia may be successfully treated with totally extraperitoneal laparoscopic access, with low conversion and complication rates.
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) has a 45% mortality in neonatal intensive care units. This paper aimed to evaluate the isolated and combined effects of sildenafil and l-arginine in intestinal wall and survival rates. Neonatal rats were fed formula milk and submitted to hypoxia under a 100% N2 atmosphere for 70 seconds. Then, animals were subjected to hypothermia (4ºC for 10 minutes), twice a day for three days. Forty neonatal rats were divided into five groups: negative control – not submitted to the protocol (n = 5), sildenafil group - NEC protocol (n = 9), l-arginine group - NEC protocol (n = 9), l-arginine and sildenafil group - NEC protocol (n = 9) and positive control - NEC protocol and intraperitoneal saline solution (n = 8). Jejunum and terminal ileus were removed for histopathologic and immunohistochemical Ki-67 analysis. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to analyze mortality, survival, body weight, intestinal injury score and Ki-67 proliferation index. All animals submitted to the protocol developed enterocolitis. Mortality rate was higher in group that received only l-arginine (p = 0.0293). The Ki-67 analysis showed a higher proliferative index in groups that received interventional drugs (p = 0.017). In conclusion, sildenafil and l-arginine were not effective to reduce intestinal injury.
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) has a 45% mortality in neonatal intensive care units. This paper aimed to evaluate the isolated and combined effects of sildenafil and l-arginine in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. Neonatal rats were fed formula milk and submitted to hypoxia under a 100% N2 atmosphere for 70 s. Then, animals were subjected to hypothermia (4 °C for 10 min), twice a day for 3 days. Forty neonatal rats were divided into five groups: negative control—not submitted to the protocol (n = 5), sildenafil group—NEC protocol (n = 9), l-arginine group—NEC protocol (n = 9), l-arginine and sildenafil group—NEC protocol (n = 9) and positive control—NEC protocol and intraperitoneal saline solution (n = 8). Jejunum and terminal ileus were removed for histopathologic and immunohistochemical Ki-67 analysis. Kruskal–Wallis test was used to analyze mortality, survival, body weight, intestinal injury score and Ki-67 proliferation index. All animals submitted to the protocol developed enterocolitis. Mortality rate was higher in group that received only l-arginine (p = 0.0293). The Ki-67 analysis showed a higher proliferative index in groups that received interventional drugs (p = 0.017). In conclusion, sildenafil and l-arginine were not effective to reduce intestinal injury.
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Objective: The aim of this study was to elaborate a specific protocol for the assessment and early identification of skin lesions in pediatric patients with Fanconi anemia undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Methods: This is a longitudinal, retrospective, and descriptive study. The medical records of 136 pediatric patients with Fanconi anemia who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2008 and 2018 at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Paraná were reviewed. A specific protocol was created for data collection, which included age, sex, skin color, age at diagnosis of Fanconi anemia, transplantation data, family history of consanguinity, and pre- and post-transplant complications. In addition, the data included the presence of graft-versus-host disease of the skin and other organs, its classification, type of lesion, location, and also skin lesions not related to graft-versus-host disease. Results: Among the skin manifestations in pre-transplant period, café-au-lait spots stood out (32.4%). At least one organ was affected by graft-versus-host disease in 55.1% of patients; the most common involvement being the mouth, followed by the skin. Rash and erythema were the most frequently observed cutaneous manifestations of graft-versus-host disease. Conclusion: A high prevalence of cutaneous manifestations of the disease was observed, as well as cutaneous manifestations of graft-versus-host disease. The protocol developed gathers relevant and standardized information for the follow-up of patients with Fanconi anemia undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, ensuring greater reliability of the information, and its implementation will allow the prospective evaluation of patients.
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