In this paper we report the set-up and results of the Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS) organized in conjunction with the MICCAI 2012 and 2013 conferences. Twenty state-of-the-art tumor segmentation algorithms were applied to a set of 65 multi-contrast MR scans of low- and high-grade glioma patients—manually annotated by up to four raters—and to 65 comparable scans generated using tumor image simulation software. Quantitative evaluations revealed considerable disagreement between the human raters in segmenting various tumor sub-regions (Dice scores in the range 74%–85%), illustrating the difficulty of this task. We found that different algorithms worked best for different sub-regions (reaching performance comparable to human inter-rater variability), but that no single algorithm ranked in the top for all sub-regions simultaneously. Fusing several good algorithms using a hierarchical majority vote yielded segmentations that consistently ranked above all individual algorithms, indicating remaining opportunities for further methodological improvements. The BRATS image data and manual annotations continue to be publicly available through an online evaluation system as an ongoing benchmarking resource.
Distance correlation is a new measure of dependence between random vectors.
Distance covariance and distance correlation are analogous to product-moment
covariance and correlation, but unlike the classical definition of correlation,
distance correlation is zero only if the random vectors are independent. The
empirical distance dependence measures are based on certain Euclidean distances
between sample elements rather than sample moments, yet have a compact
representation analogous to the classical covariance and correlation.
Asymptotic properties and applications in testing independence are discussed.
Implementation of the test and Monte Carlo results are also presented.Comment: Published in at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/009053607000000505 the
Annals of Statistics (http://www.imstat.org/aos/) by the Institute of
Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org
We discuss briefly the very interesting concept of Brownian distance covariance developed by Székely and Rizzo (2009) and describe two possible extensions. The first extension is for high dimensional data that can be coerced into a Hilbert space, including certain high throughput screening and functional data settings. The second extension involves very simple modifications that may yield increased power in some settings. We commend Székely and Rizzo for their very interesting work and recognize that this general idea has potential to have a large impact on the way in which statisticians evaluate dependency in data.
This paper describes a method for 4D imaging, which is used to study respiratory organ motion, a key problem in various treatments. Whilst the commonly used imaging methods rely on simplified breathing patterns to acquire one breathing cycle, the proposed method was developed to study irregularities in organ motion during free breathing over tens of minutes. The method does not assume a constant breathing depth or even strict periodicity and does not depend on an external respiratory signal. Time-resolved 3D image sequences were reconstructed by retrospective stacking of dynamic 2D images using internal image-based sorting. The generic method is demonstrated for the liver and for the lung. Quantitative evaluations of the volume consistency show the advantages over one-dimensional measurements for image sorting. Dense deformation fields describing the respiratory motion were estimated from the reconstructed volumes using non-rigid 3D registration. All obtained motion fields showed variations in the range of minutes such as drifts and deformations, which changed both the exhalation position of the liver and the breathing pattern. The obtained motion data are used in proton therapy planning to evaluate dose delivery methodologies with respect to their motion sensitivity. Besides this application, the new possibilities of studying respiratory motion are valuable for other applications such as the evaluation of gating techniques with respect to residual motion.
This paper presents a new technique for the automatic model-based segmentation of three-dimensional (3-D) objects from volumetric image data. The development closely follows the seminal work of Taylor and Cootes on active shape models, but is based on a hierarchical parametric object description rather than a point distribution model. The segmentation system includes both the building of statistical models and the automatic segmentation of new image data sets via a restricted elastic deformation of shape models. Geometric models are derived from a sample set of image data which have been segmented by experts. The surfaces of these binary objects are converted into parametric surface representations, which are normalized to get an invariant object-centered coordinate system. Surface representations are expanded into series of spherical harmonics which provide parametric descriptions of object shapes. It is shown that invariant object surface parametrization provides a good approximation to automatically determine object homology in terms of sets of corresponding sets of surface points. Gray-level information near object boundaries is represented by 1-D intensity profiles normal to the surface. Considering automatic segmentation of brain structures as our driving application, our choice of coordinates for object alignment was the well-accepted stereotactic coordinate system. Major variation of object shapes around the mean shape, also referred to as shape eigenmodes, are calculated in shape parameter space rather than the feature space of point coordinates. Segmentation makes use of the object shape statistics by restricting possible elastic deformations into the range of the training shapes. The mean shapes are initialized in a new data set by specifying the landmarks of the stereotactic coordinate system. The model elastically deforms, driven by the displacement forces across the object's surface, which are generated by matching local intensity profiles. Elastic deformations are limited by setting bounds for the maximum variations in eigenmode space. The technique has been applied to automatically segment left and right hippocampus, thalamus, putamen, and globus pallidus from volumetric magnetic resonance scans taken from schizophrenia studies. The results have been validated by comparison of automatic segmentation with the results obtained by interactive expert segmentation.
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