"Theoretical considerations, supported by statistical analysis of 39 annual flood series (AFS) of Italian basins, suggest that the two-component extreme value (TCEV) distribution can be assumed as a parent flood distribution, i.e., one closely representative of the real flood experience. This distribution belongs to the family of distributions of the annual maximum of a compound Poisson process, which is a solid theoretical basis for AFS analysis. However, the two-parameter distribution of this family, obtained on the assumption of identically distributed floods, does not account for the high variability of both observed skewness and largest order statistics, so that a significant number of observed floods qualify as outliers under this distribution. The more general TCEV distribution assumes individual floods to arise from a mixture of two exponential components. Its four parameters can be estimated by the maximum likelihood method. A regionalized TCEV distribution, with parameters representative of a set of 39 Italian AFS's, was shown to closely reproduce the observed distribution of skewness and that of the largest order statistic.
Regional models of extreme rainfall must address the spatial variability induced by orographic obstacles. However, the proper\ud
detection of orographic effects often depends on the availability of a well-designed rain gauge network. The aim of this study is\ud
to investigate a new method for identifying and characterizing the effects of orography on the spatial structure of extreme rainfall\ud
at the regional scale, including where rainfall data are lacking or fail to describe rainfall features thoroughly.\ud
We analyse the annual maxima of daily rainfall data in the Campania region, an orographically complex region in Southern Italy,\ud
and introduce a statistical procedure to identify spatial outliers in a low order statistic (namely the mean). The locations of these\ud
outliers are then compared with a pattern of orographic objects that has been a priori identified through the application of an\ud
automatic geomorphological procedure. The results show a direct and clear link between a particular set of orographic objects\ud
and a local increase in the spatial variability of extreme rainfall. This analysis allowed us to objectively identify areas where\ud
orography produces enhanced variability in extreme rainfall. It has direct implications for rain gauge network design criteria and\ud
has led to promising developments in the regional analysis of extreme rainfall
Datasets concerning some user-scale Smart Grids, named Nano-grids, are reported in this paper. First several Solar Home Systems composed of a photovoltaic plant, a backup generator and different types of lithium-ion batteries are provided. Then, the inventory analysis of hybrid Nano-grids integrating batteries and hydrogen storage is outlined according to different scenarios. These data inventory could be useful for any academic or stakeholder interested in reproducing this analysis and/or developing environmental sustainability assessment in the field of Smart Grids. For more insight, please see “Environmental analysis of a Nano-Grid: a Life Cycle Assessment” by Rossi F, Parisi M.L., Maranghi S., Basosi R., Sinicropi A. .
In this paper demand side management (DSM), characterized by shifting techniques, is applied to a residential microgrid. It is supposed that the microgrid is managed by a prosumer, a decision maker who manages distributed energy sources, storage units, ICT elements, and loads involved in the grid. DSM is considered as an integral part of the optimal economic short-term management problem such that the allocation of shiftable loads is treated as a variable must be determined simultaneously with all the others variables (i.e. energy exchange with the main grid, internal production, charge/discharge of electrical storage units). This paper focuses on the formulation of an economic model including functional links between shiftable and shifted loads properly linked. The objective function is the minimization of the operation energy costs. The model is implemented using IBM ILOG CPLEX an optimization programming language solver. The analysis shows how the variable allocation of shiftable loads is related to the other variables and how all the variables are linked (directly or indirectly) to the energy price and to the other parameters typical of shiftable energy devices. Moreover, the model allows to easily perform sensitivity analyses by varying the parameters considered. For instance, transitioning from the pre-shift to post-shift state, an improvement of the economic objective corresponds to an enhancement in the utility load profile. A sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the maximum amount of power exchanged with the main grid. Results provide useful information to find a compromise between connecting interests. Numerical results are presented and discussed
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