Protecting riparian vegetation around streams is vital in reducing the detrimental effects of environmental change on freshwater ecosystems and in maintaining aquatic biodiversity. Thus, identifying ecological thresholds is useful for defining regulatory limits and for guiding the management of riparian zones towards the conservation of freshwater biota. Using nationwide data on fish and invertebrates occurring in small Brazilian streams, we estimated thresholds of native vegetation loss in which there are abrupt changes in the occurrence and abundance of freshwater bioindicators and tested whether there are congruent responses among different biomes, biological groups and riparian buffer sizes. Mean thresholds of native vegetation cover loss varied widely among biomes, buffer sizes and biological groups: ranging from 0.5% to 77.4% for fish, from 2.9% to 37.0% for aquatic invertebrates and from 3.8% to 43.2% for a subset of aquatic invertebrates. Confidence intervals for thresholds were wide, but the minimum values of these intervals were lower for the smaller riparian buffers (50 and 100 m) than larger ones (200 and 500 m), indicating that land use should be kept away from the streams. Also, thresholds occurred at a lower percentage of riparian vegetation loss in the smaller buffers, and were critically lower for invertebrates: reducing only 6.5% of native vegetation cover within a 50‐m riparian buffer is enough to cross thresholds for invertebrates. Synthesis and applications. The high variability in biodiversity responses to loss of native riparian vegetation suggests caution in the use of a single riparian width for conservation actions or policy definitions nationwide. The most sensitive bioindicators can be used as early warning signals of abrupt changes in freshwater biodiversity. In practice, maintaining at least 50‐m wide riparian reserves on each side of streams would be more effective to protect freshwater biodiversity in Brazil. However, incentives and conservation strategies to protect even wider riparian reserves (~100 m) and also taking into consideration the regional context will promote a greater benefit. This information should be used to set conservation goals and to create complementary mechanisms and policies to protect wider riparian reserves than those currently required by the federal law.
Despite the fact that the state is one of the smallest in Brazil, representing only 0.53% of the country area, a surprising diversity was found. Seventy-six species, 41 genera and nine families were identified, which represents about 25% of the species reported from Brazil, 65% of the genera, and almost all families. Of these, 17 species (most of Baetidae and Leptophlebiidae) are new to science. Five species, collected only at the nymphal stage, could not be identified to the species level. The present work demonstrates that, as for other organisms, the diversity of mayflies is high in the state, and more works aiming to investigate the aquatic insect composition of the Espírito Santo State should be encouraged.
Oligoneuriidae is a Pantropical family of Ephemeroptera, with 68 species described in 12 genera. Three subfamilies are recognized: Chromarcyinae, with a single species from East Asia; Colocrurinae, with two fossil species from Brazil; and Oligoneuriinae, with the remaining species distributed in the Neotropical, Nearctic, Afrotropical and Palaearctic regions. Phylogenetic and biogeographical analyses were performed for the family based on 2762 characters [73 morphological and 2689 molecular (COI, 16S, 18S and 28S)]. Four major groups were recovered in all analyses (parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference), and they were assigned to tribal level, namely Oligoneuriini, Homoeoneuriini trib. nov., Oligoneuriellini trib. nov. and Elassoneuriini trib. nov. In addition, Yawari and Madeconeuria were elevated to genus level. According to Statistical Dispersal-Vicariance (S-DIVA), Dispersal Extinction Cladogenesis (DEC) and divergence time estimation analyses, Oligoneuriidae originated ~150 Mya in the Gondwanan supercontinent, but was probably restricted to the currently delimited Neotropical region. The initial divergence of Oligoneuriidae involved a range expansion to Oriental and Afrotropical areas, sometime between 150 and 118 Mya. At ~118 Mya, the family started its diversification, reaching the Nearctic through dispersal from the Neotropical region and the Palaearctic and Madagascar from the Afrotropical region.
The present work, based on material from northern, central-western, and northeastern Brazil, contributes to the knowledge of the two-winged Cloeodes Traver (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) in South America. Two new species, C. maracatu, sp. nov. and C. spaceki, sp. nov., are described, the former based on nymphs and reared adults and the latter only on nymphs; the male and female imago of C. auwe and the female imago of C. redactus are described. Based on these findings, an updated key for South American nymphs and male adults of the two-winged Cloeodes is provided.
In the present work, two new species of Cloeodes Traver are described based on nymphs and adults collected in the State of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. The main characteristics that distinguish the new species from its congeners are, in C. itajara sp. nov.: a) labrum with dorsal arc of setae composed of 12 setae, b) segment III of labial palp with robust and pectinate setae on inner margin, c) fore femur with apex projected, with 5−6 blunt setae, d) male imago with abdominal terga V−VII with a anterolateral triangular black mark; in C. aymore sp. nov.: a) labrum with dorsal arc of setae composed of 1 + 0 + 3 setae, b) fore femur with apex projected, with 2 blunt setae, c) male imago with abdominal terga IV with kidney-like median brown mark.
For 150 years O. anomala has been the only known species of Oligoneuria, the type genus of the Oligoneuriidae (Ephemeroptera). However, two species have been recently described and Oligoneuria has been proposed as a senior synonym of the genus Oligoneurioides. In the present paper, based on material from the Amazon and Brazilian Atlantic Forest, three new species are described, including information on all life stages. Given these new species, as well as the lack of cladistic support for the proposed synonymy between Oligoneuria and Oligoneurioides, a phylogenetic analysis was performed in order to address the relationships between all species and to test the status of Oligoneurioides. Our results show that the status of the genus is uncertain, mainly due to the lack of knowledge of the type species of O. anomala, known exclusively from a female subimago. Taking into account phylogenetic as well as taxonomic arguments, we propose that the genus Oligoneuria should be divided into three subgenera: Oligoneuria s.s., for O. anomala; Oligoneuria (Yawari) new subgenus, for Oligoneuria truncata sp.n.; and Oligoneuria (Oligoneurioides) for the remaining five species, including O. amandae sp.n. and O. mitra sp.n. This published work has been registered in ZooBank, http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A2AEE4B7-FEA8-4067-8F3B-666095EDB997.
Oligoneuria (Yawari) anatina sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on nymphs and imagoes collected in the municipality of Serra do Navio, state of Amapá, Brazil. The main characteristics that can be used to distinguish the new species from other species of the genus are, in imagoes: 1) forewing with spectral cross veins between IRS and MP2 (male) or between IRS and IMP (female), 2) posterior margin of styliger plate distally rounded and with paired rounded projections; in nymphs: 1) vertex of head with two pairs of tubercles, 2) lateral margin of anterior projection of head straight. Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences were used to associate male imago and immature stages of the new species.
ABSTRACT. Conservation of mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) in Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Ephemeroptera exhibits great diversity among bodies of freshwater in the Atlantic Forest, a biome that is suffering from massive human impact. Within this context, the creation of conservation units using biological information is more recommended than economic, cultural, or political criteria. The distribution pattern of 76 Ephemeroptera species was analyzed using the biogeographical methods Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and Network Analysis Method in order to infer relevant areas for conservation of the mayfly community in Espírito Santo. The results obtained from both analyses were largely congruent, and pointed out four relevant areas for conservation: two in the south of the state, where conservation units or priority areas for conservation are well established; and two in the north, a region in the state where little conservation efforts have been historically done. Therefore, based on our analyses on mayflies, we recommend the expansion of the existing APCs or the creation of new APCs on the north of Espírito Santo.
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