The Committee on Pediatric Obesity of the Korean Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition newly developed the first Korean Guideline on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Obesity in Children and Adolescents to deliver an evidence-based systematic approach to childhood obesity in South Korea. The following areas were systematically reviewed, especially on the basis of all available references published in South Korea and worldwide, and new guidelines were established in each area with the strength of recommendations based on the levels of evidence: (1) definition and diagnosis of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents; (2) principles of treatment of pediatric obesity; (3) behavioral interventions for children and adolescents with obesity, including diet, exercise, lifestyle, and mental health; (4) pharmacotherapy; and (5) bariatric surgery.
Background/AimsAbdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder (AP-FGID) is common in children and adults. However, the mechanism of AP-FGID is not clearly known. Recently, micro-inflammation, especially eosinophilia in the gastrointestinal tract, was suggested in the pathophysiology of AP-FGID in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of gastric and duodenal eosinophilia with pediatric AP-FGID.
MethodsIn total, 105 pediatric patients with AP-FGID were recruited and classified into 4 subgroups based on the Rome III criteria. Eosinophil counts in the gastric and duodenal tissues of children with AP-FGID were compared to those from normal pathology references or those of children with Helicobacter pylori infection. Tissue eosinophil counts were also compared among the 4 subtypes of AP-FGID.
ResultsEosinophil counts in the gastric antrum and body were significantly higher in children with AP-FGID than normal reference values. Duodenal eosinophil counts were higher in children with AP-FGID, but not significantly when compared with normal reference values. There were no significant differences in eosinophil counts of the stomach or duodenum among the 4 subtypes of AP-FGID. Eosinophils counts in the gastric antrum and body were significantly higher in children with H. pylori infection than in those with AP-FGID. Duodenal eosinophilia was prominent in cases of H. pylori infection, but not statistically significant when compared with AP-FGID.
ConclusionsOur study revealed that gastric eosinophilia is associated with AP-FGID in children, regardless of the subtype of functional abdominal pain. This suggests some contribution of gastrointestinal eosinophils in the development of pediatric AP-FGID.
This was a nationwide population-based study conducted to investigate the epidemiology, treatment, disease outcomes, and associated factors of childhood intussusception in South Korea.
Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database on all patients <18 years old diagnosed with intussusception from 2007 to 2017 were analyzed.
A total of 34,688 cases were identified among 30,444 patients. The overall incidence was 28.3/100,000 person-years with a male predominance. Most cases (83.1%) occurred in children <3 years old, with an annual incidence of 195.2, 200.1, and 118.6 cases per 100,000 children in their first, second, and third year of life, respectively. The median age at the first occurrence was 18.7 months, and it was higher in boys than in girls. The post-discharge recurrence rate was 10.6% (3,226/30,444) and the in-hospital recurrence rate was 6.1% (1,842/30,444). The total recurrence rate (post-discharge recurrence and/or in-hospital recurrence) was 15.0% (4,580/30,444). Enema reduction was successful in 90.0% of cases. Enema reduction was more successful in girls than in boys. A total of 3,296 (10.8%) patients underwent 3,481 surgeries, including 735 (21.1%) laparoscopic surgeries. Post-discharge recurrence and surgery were significantly affected by age, sex, and hospital type. Mortality was noted in nine cases (0.03%).
Our study provides accurate epidemiologic data on the treatment and outcomes of intussusception through complete enumeration during an 11-year-period.
Background/AimsAlthough functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs) are common in children, the accurate pathogenesis of FAPDs is not known yet. Micro-inflammation, particularly tissue eosinophilia of gastrointestinal (GI) tract, has been suggested as the pathophysiology observed in several GI disorders. We aimed to evaluate eosinophilic infiltration throughout the entire GI tract in children with FAPDs, compared to those with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and to normal reference values.MethodsWe included 56 children with FAPDs, 52 children with Crohn’s disease, and 23 children with ulcerative colitis. All subjects underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopic and colonoscopic examination with biopsies. Tissue eosinophil counts were assessed in 10 regions throughout the GI tract.ResultsEosinophil counts of the gastric antrum, duodenum, terminal ileum, cecum, and ascending colon were significantly higher in children with FAPDs compared to normal reference values. Eosinophil counts of the stomach and the entire colon were observed to be significantly higher in children with IBD than in those with FAPDs. Even after selecting macroscopically uninvolved GI segments on endoscopy in children with IBD, eosinophil counts of the gastric body, cecum, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and the rectum were also significantly higher in children with IBD than those with FAPDs.ConclusionsSignificantly high eosinophil counts of the stomach and colon were observed in the order of IBD, followed by FAPDs, and normal controls, regardless of endoscopically detected macroscopic IBD lesions in children. This suggests some contribution of GI tract eosinophils in the intrinsic pathogenesis of FAPDs in children.
The Committee on Pediatric Obesity of the Korean Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition newly developed the first Korean Guideline on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Obesity in Children and Adolescents to deliver an evidence-based systematic approach to childhood obesity in South Korea. The following areas were systematically reviewed, especially on the basis of all available references published in South Korea and worldwide, and new guidelines were established in each area with the strength of recommendations based on the levels of evidence: 1) definition and diagnosis of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents; 2) principles of treatment of pediatric obesity; 3) behavioral interventions for children and adolescents with obesity, including diet, exercise, lifestyle, and mental health; 4) pharmacotherapy; and 5) bariatric surgery.
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