The production of pairs of entangled photons simply by focusing a laser beam onto a crystal with a non-linear optical response was used to test quantum mechanics and to open new approaches in imaging. The development of the latter was enabled by the emergence of single photon sensitive cameras able to characterize spatial correlations and high-dimensional entanglement. Thereby new techniques emerged such as the ghost imaging of objectswhere the quantum correlations between photons reveal the image from photons that have never interacted with the object -or the imaging with undetected photons by using nonlinear interferometers. Additionally, quantum approaches in imaging can also lead to an improvement in the performance of conventional imaging systems. These improvements can be obtained by means of image contrast, resolution enhancement that exceed the classical limit and acquisition of sub-shot noise phase or amplitude images. In this review we discuss the application of quantum states of light for advanced imaging techniques.
The contrast of an image can be degraded by the presence of background light and sensor noise.To overcome this degradation, quantum illumination protocols have been theorised (Science 321 (2008), Physics Review Letters 101 (2008)) that exploit the spatial correlations between photonpairs. Here we demonstrate the first full-field imaging system using quantum illumination, by an enhanced detection protocol. With our current technology we achieve a rejection of background and stray light of order 5 and also report an image contrast improvement up to a factor of 5.5, which is resilient to both environmental noise and transmission losses. The quantum illumination protocol differs from usual quantum schemes in that the advantage is maintained even in the presence of noise and loss. Our approach may enable laboratory-based quantum imaging to be applied to real-world applications where the suppression of background light and noise is important, such as imaging under low-photon flux and quantum LIDAR.Conventional illumination uses a spatially and temporally random sequence of photons to illuminate an object, whereas quantum illumination can use spatial correlations between pairs of photons to achieve performance enhancements in the presence of noise and/or losses. This enhancement is made possible by using detection techniques that preferentially select photon-pair events over isolated background events.The quantum illumination protocol was introduced by Lloyd , and generalized to Gaussian states by Tan et al. , where they proposed a practical version of the protocol. Quantum illumination has applications in the context of quantum information protocol such as secure communication [3,4] where it secures communication against passive eavesdropping techniques that take advantage of noise and losses. The protocol has also been proposed to be useful for detecting the presence of a target object embedded within a noisy background, despite environmental perturbations and losses destroying the initial entanglement [5,6,7].In 2013, Lopaeva et al. performed an experimental demonstration of the quantum illumination principle, to determine the presence or absence of a semi-transparent object, by exploiting intensity correlations of a quantum origin in the presence of thermal light . Additionally, a quantum illumination protocol has been experimentally demonstrated in the microwave domain  and a further demonstration in which joint detection of the signal and idler is not required . However, these previous demonstrations were restricted 1 to simply detecting the presence or absence of a target, rather than performing any form of spatially resolved imaging. The acquisition of an image using quantum illumination has recently been reported , but that demonstration was performed using a mono-mode source of correlations and by raster-scanning the object within this single-mode beam. The aforementioned demonstration may be seen as a qualitative assessment of the method but a full field imaging implementation of the qua...
Ghost imaging uses optical correlations to enable an alternative and intriguing image acquisition technique: even though information from either one of the detectors used for the acquisition does not yield an image, an image can be obtained by harnessing the optical correlations. This Review describes a variety of both quantum and classical ghost imaging techniques, and seeks to point out where these techniques may have practical applications.
The spatial resolution of an optical system is limited by diffraction. Various schemes have been proposed to achieve resolution enhancement by employing either a scanning source/detector configuration or a two-photon response of the object. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a full-field resolution-enhancing scheme, based on the centroid estimation of spatially quantum-correlated biphotons. Our standard-quantum-limited scheme is able to image a general non-fluorescing object, using low-energy and low-intensity infrared illumination (i.e., with <0.001 photon per pixel per frame at 710 nm), achieving 41% of the theoretically available resolution enhancement. Images of real-world objects are shown for visual comparison, in which the classically bound resolution is surpassed using our technically straightforward quantum-imaging scheme. Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.
Quantum ghost imaging uses photon pairs produced from parametric downconversion to enable an alternative method of image acquisition. Information from either one of the photons does not yield an image, but an image can be obtained by harnessing the correlations between them. Here we present an examination of the resolution limits of such ghost imaging systems. In both conventional imaging and quantum ghost imaging the resolution of the image is limited by the point-spread function of the optics associated with the spatially resolving detector. However, whereas in conventional imaging systems the resolution is limited only by this point spread function, in ghost imaging we show that the resolution can be further degraded by reducing the strength of the spatial correlations inherent in the downconversion process.
The violation of a Bell inequality not only attests to the nonclassical nature of a system but also holds a very unique status within the quantum world. The amount by which the inequality is violated often provides a good benchmark on how a quantum protocol will perform. Acquiring images of such a fundamental quantum effect is a demonstration that images can capture and exploit the essence of the quantum world. Here, we report an experiment demonstrating the violation of a Bell inequality within observed images. It is based on acquiring full-field coincidence images of a phase object probed by photons from an entangled pair source. The image exhibits a violation of a Bell inequality with S = 2.44 ± 0.04. This result both opens the way to new quantum imaging schemes based on the violation of a Bell inequality and suggests promise for quantum information schemes based on spatial variables.
SignificanceThe emergence of “negative” frequencies in physical systems is often accompanied by intriguing consequences. For example, supersonic motion between a source and an observer leads to a negative Doppler-shifted frequency, the physical meaning of which is time reversal of the received signal. To our knowledge, the rotational analogue of this situation—the consequences of generating negative rotationally Doppler-shifted waves—has not been studied. Here we show, using an acoustic source, that a negative rotational Doppler shift is associated with a handedness reversal of the orbital angular momentum carried by the wave. We demonstrate that this handedness reversal can occur even at significantly subsonic velocities, making our findings relevant to interactions of ultrafast rotating systems with optical frequency radiation.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.