The production of pairs of entangled photons simply by focusing a laser beam onto a crystal with a non-linear optical response was used to test quantum mechanics and to open new approaches in imaging. The development of the latter was enabled by the emergence of single photon sensitive cameras able to characterize spatial correlations and high-dimensional entanglement. Thereby new techniques emerged such as the ghost imaging of objectswhere the quantum correlations between photons reveal the image from photons that have never interacted with the object -or the imaging with undetected photons by using nonlinear interferometers. Additionally, quantum approaches in imaging can also lead to an improvement in the performance of conventional imaging systems. These improvements can be obtained by means of image contrast, resolution enhancement that exceed the classical limit and acquisition of sub-shot noise phase or amplitude images. In this review we discuss the application of quantum states of light for advanced imaging techniques.
Spatially entangled twin photons provide both promising resources for modern quantum information protocols, because of the high dimensionality of transverse entanglement 1,2 , and a test of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox 3 in its original form of position versus impulsion. Usually, photons in temporal coincidence are selected and their positions recorded, resulting in a priori assumptions on their spatio-temporal behavior 4 . Here, we record on two separate electron-multiplying charge coupled devices (EMCCD) cameras twin images of the entire flux of spontaneous down-conversion. This ensures a strict equivalence between the subsystems corresponding to the detection of either position (image or near-field plane) or momentum (Fourier or far-field plane) 5 . We report the highest degree of paradox ever reported and show that this degree corresponds to the number of independent degrees of freedom 6,7 or resolution cells 8 , of the images.In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) showed that quantum mechanics predicts that entangled particles could have both perfectly correlated positions and momenta, in contradiction with the so-called local realism where two distant particles should be treated as two different systems. Though the original intention of EPR was to show that quantum mechanics is not complete, the standard present view is that entangled particles do experience nonlocal correlations 9,10 . It can be shown that the spatial extent of these correlations corresponds to the size of a spatial unit of information, or mode, offering the possibility of detecting high dimensional entanglement in an image with a sufficient number of resolution cells 2,4 . However, in most experiments the use of single photon detectors and coincidence counting leads to the detection of a very few part of selected photons, generating a sampling loophole in fundamental demonstrations. High sensitivity array detectors have been used outside the single photoncounting regime in order to witness the quantum feature of light, showing the possibility of achieving larger signal-tonoise ratio than in classical imaging 11,12 . However, the EPR paradox is intimately connected to the particle character of light and its detection should involve single photon imaging, possible either with intensified charge coupled devices (ICCD) or, more recently, EMCCDs 13 . ICCDs exhibit a lower noise but have also a lower quantum efficiency than EMCCDs and a more extended spatial impulse response. ICCD are therefore convenient to isolate pairs of entangled photons 14 , as shown in a recent experiment: an ICCD triggered by a single photon detector was used to detect heralded photons in various spatial modes 15 .On the other hand, because of their higher quantum efficiency EMCCDs allow efficient detection of quantum correlations in images, as demonstrated some years ago by measuring sub-shot-noise correlations in far-field images of spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) 16,17 . More recently, two experiments intended to achieve the demonstra...
We demonstrate Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entanglement by detecting purely spatial quantum correla-tions in the near and far fields of spontaneous parametric down-conversion generated in a type-2 beta barium borate crystal. Full-field imaging is performed in the photon-counting regime with an electron-multiplying CCD camera. The data are used without any postselection, and we obtain a violation of Heisenberg inequalities with inferred quantities taking into account all the biphoton pairs in both the near and far fields by integration on the entire two-dimensional transverse planes. This ensures a rigorous demonstration of the EPR paradox in its original positionmomentum form.
The contrast of an image can be degraded by the presence of background light and sensor noise.To overcome this degradation, quantum illumination protocols have been theorised (Science 321 (2008), Physics Review Letters 101 (2008)) that exploit the spatial correlations between photonpairs. Here we demonstrate the first full-field imaging system using quantum illumination, by an enhanced detection protocol. With our current technology we achieve a rejection of background and stray light of order 5 and also report an image contrast improvement up to a factor of 5.5, which is resilient to both environmental noise and transmission losses. The quantum illumination protocol differs from usual quantum schemes in that the advantage is maintained even in the presence of noise and loss. Our approach may enable laboratory-based quantum imaging to be applied to real-world applications where the suppression of background light and noise is important, such as imaging under low-photon flux and quantum LIDAR.Conventional illumination uses a spatially and temporally random sequence of photons to illuminate an object, whereas quantum illumination can use spatial correlations between pairs of photons to achieve performance enhancements in the presence of noise and/or losses. This enhancement is made possible by using detection techniques that preferentially select photon-pair events over isolated background events.The quantum illumination protocol was introduced by Lloyd , and generalized to Gaussian states by Tan et al. , where they proposed a practical version of the protocol. Quantum illumination has applications in the context of quantum information protocol such as secure communication [3,4] where it secures communication against passive eavesdropping techniques that take advantage of noise and losses. The protocol has also been proposed to be useful for detecting the presence of a target object embedded within a noisy background, despite environmental perturbations and losses destroying the initial entanglement [5,6,7].In 2013, Lopaeva et al. performed an experimental demonstration of the quantum illumination principle, to determine the presence or absence of a semi-transparent object, by exploiting intensity correlations of a quantum origin in the presence of thermal light . Additionally, a quantum illumination protocol has been experimentally demonstrated in the microwave domain  and a further demonstration in which joint detection of the signal and idler is not required . However, these previous demonstrations were restricted 1 to simply detecting the presence or absence of a target, rather than performing any form of spatially resolved imaging. The acquisition of an image using quantum illumination has recently been reported , but that demonstration was performed using a mono-mode source of correlations and by raster-scanning the object within this single-mode beam. The aforementioned demonstration may be seen as a qualitative assessment of the method but a full field imaging implementation of the qua...
Engineering apparatus that harness quantum theory promises to offer practical advantages over current technology. A fundamentally more powerful prospect is that such quantum technologies could out-perform any future iteration of their classical counterparts, no matter how well the attributes of those classical strategies can be improved. Here, for optical direct absorption measurement, we experimentally demonstrate such an instance of an absolute advantage per photon probe that is exposed to the absorbative sample. We use correlated intensity measurements of spontaneous parametric downconversion using a commercially available air-cooled CCD, a new estimator for data analysis and a high heralding efficiency photon-pair source. We show this enables improvement in the precision of measurement, per photon probe, beyond what is achievable with an ideal coherent state (a perfect laser) detected with 100% efficient and noiseless detection. We see this absolute improvement for up to 50% absorption, with a maximum observed factor of improvement of 1.46. This equates to around 32% reduction in the total number of photons traversing an optical sample, compared to any future direct optical absorption measurement using classical light.
Ghost imaging uses optical correlations to enable an alternative and intriguing image acquisition technique: even though information from either one of the detectors used for the acquisition does not yield an image, an image can be obtained by harnessing the optical correlations. This Review describes a variety of both quantum and classical ghost imaging techniques, and seeks to point out where these techniques may have practical applications.
Ghost imaging is a fascinating process, where light interacting with an object is recorded without resolution, but the shape of the object is nevertheless retrieved, thanks to quantum or classical correlations of this interacting light with either a computed or detected random signal. Recently, ghost imaging has been extended to a time object, by using several thousands copies of this periodic object. Here, we present a very simple device, inspired by computational ghost imaging, that allows the retrieval of a single non-reproducible, periodic or non-periodic, temporal signal. The reconstruction is performed by a single shot, spatially multiplexed, measurement of the spatial intensity correlations between computer-generated random images and the images, modulated by a temporal signal, recorded and summed on a chip CMOS camera used with no temporal resolution. Our device allows the reconstruction of either a single temporal signal with monochrome images or wavelength-multiplexed signals with color images.
Harnessing the unique properties of quantum mechanics offers the possibility to deliver new technologies that can fundamentally outperform their classical counterparts. These technologies only deliver advantages when components operate with performance beyond specific thresholds. For optical quantum metrology, the biggest challenge that impacts on performance thresholds is optical loss. Here we demonstrate how including an optical delay and an optical switch in a feed-forward configuration with a stable and efficient correlated photon pair source reduces the detector efficiency required to enable quantum enhanced sensing down to the detection level of single photons. When the switch is active, we observe a factor of improvement in precision of 1.27 for transmission measurement on a per input photon basis, compared to the performance of a laser emitting an ideal coherent state and measured with the same detection efficiency as our setup. When the switch is inoperative, we observe no quantum advantage.Quantum mechanics quantifies the highest precision that is achievable in each type of optical measurement . Single photon probes measured with single photon detectors are in principle optimal for gaining the most precision per-unit intensity when measuring optical transmission . However, in practice, optical loss and low component efficiencies prevent an advantage from being achieved using single photon detectors . One way to reduce the impact of lower component efficiency is to incorporate fast optical switching and an optical delay with schemes that are based on heralded generation of quantum sates . This then enables use of a quantum state conditioned on the successful detection of a correlated signal -this is referred to as feed-forward.Feed-forward is key for demonstrations of optical quantum computing , it has been used in experiments that increase the generation rate  and signal-to-noise ratio  of heralded single photons, it has been used to calibrate single photon detectors  and it has also been applied to gather evidence of single photon sensitivity in animal vision . Jakeman and Rarity proposed in Ref. using feed-forward with correlated photon pairs to enable sub shot noise optical transmission measurements when component efficiency is otherwise not sufficient to permit a quantum advantage in passive direct detection . But despite becoming identified as key to more general multi-photon entangled quantum state engineering for quantum metrology [19,20], feed-forward has not been implemented for quantum enhanced parameter estimation. Here we implement the proposal featured in Ref. (Fig. 1) to realise sub shot noise measurement of transmissitivity, using single photon detectors that are too low in efficiency to enable sub shot noise performance in a passive measurement.The transmissivity η of a sample is in general estimated by measuring the reduction of light intensity from a known mean input valueN in , to a reduced mean valueN out according ...
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