RESUMOObjetivo:analisar o absenteísmo-doença da equipe de enfermagem.Método:estudo retrospectivo, com abordagem quantitativa, realizado em um hospital universitário, localizado no município de Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados nos dossiês funcionais dos trabalhadores referentes ao período de 2008 a 2012.Resultados:dos 602 trabalhadores, 435 apresentaram 1574 atestados médicos. As doenças do sistema osteomuscular e do tecido conjuntivo, seguidas dos transtornos mentais e comportamentais foram as principais causadoras de licenças médicas. A categoria profissional que apresentou maior número de atestados médicos foi a de técnico em enfermagem. Predominou o sexo feminino e a faixa etária de 41 a 50 anos. O ambulatório foi o local com maior frequência, seguido da clínica médica e do Pronto Socorro.Conclusão:o absenteísmo-doença compromete o funcionamento do serviço, a equipe de enfermagem e os usuários, promove uma sobrecarga de trabalho e interfere na qualidade da assistência de enfermagem.
Neuronal destruction has been considered the hallmark of pathogenic mechanisms in chagasic megacolon. Characterization of neuropeptides in the enteric nervous system from chagasic patients with megacolon could elucidate some aspects of the development of this syndrome. In the present work we demonstrate the changes in expression of neuropeptides and neurochemical markers present in neuronal plexuses from the colons of chagasic patients with megacolon. Sections of frozen tissue samples were immunohistochemically labeled for anticalretinin, cChaT, substance P, VIP, NOS, and NPY. Immunoreactivity was observed using a confocal microscope. Our results demonstrate that in chagasic patients with megacolon, inhibitory motor neurons (VIP and NOS immunoreactive) are preferentially destroyed by Trypanosoma cruzi and/or the inflammatory process. These results suggest a selective destruction of enteric neurons in the colon of chagasic patients with megacolon, pointing to an important discovery in the mechanism of pathogenesis of Chagas' disease.
Experimental data have demonstrated that chronic infection with intracellular parasites may enhance resistance against some types of tumour. This phenomenon has not yet been demonstrated for experimental Trypanosoma cruzi chronic infection. This study investigated the effect of a specific colon cancer inducing drug, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), on chronically T.cruzi infected Wistar rats. Infection was obtained by inoculation of 10(5) tripomastigote forms by subcutaneous (s.c.) route. Acute phase of the infection was monitored every other day by examination of a blood smear from each animal until negativation. In the early chronic phase of the infection, colon adenocarcinoma was induced by weekly s.c. injections of DMH at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight for 12 weeks. 102 animals were divided in four test groups: 39 infected rats received DMH (group 1); 32 non-infected rats received DMH (group 2); 16 infected rats and 15 non-infected animals were used as control groups. Animals were killed 6 months after the first dose of DMH. The whole colon was removed and prepared for light microscopic examination. Twelve animals from group 1 and 22 from group 2 had colon adenocarcinomas, the proportion of cancer being 30.7 and 68.7%, respectively (chi(2) = 10.16; P < 0.05). The relative risk of having a colon tumor in infected animals (group 1) was 0.45 (IC 95% 0.26-0.76), which is a protective risk compared with non-infected animals. These findings show that chronic infection with T.cruzi is associated with a lower incidence of DMH-induced colon cancer in rats.
Megacolon, the irreversible dilation of a colonic segment, is a structural sign associated with various gastrointestinal disorders. In its hereditary, secondary form (e.g. in Hirschsprung’s disease), dilation occurs in an originally healthy colonic segment due to an anally located, aganglionic zone. In contrast, in chronic Chagas’ disease, the dilated segment itself displays pathohistological changes, and the earliest and most prominent being found was massive loss of myenteric neurons. This neuron loss was partial and selective, i.e. some neurons containing neuronal nitric oxide synthase and/or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were spared from neuron death. This disproportionate survival of inhibitory neurons, however, did not completely correlate with the calibre change along the surgically removed, megacolonic segments. A better correlation was observed as to potentially contractile muscle tissue elements and the interstitial cells of Cajal. Therefore, the decreased densities of α-smooth muscle actin- and c-kit-immunoreactive profiles were estimated along resected megacolonic segments. Their lowest values were observed in the megacolonic zones itself, whereas less pronounced decreases were found in the non-dilated, transitional zones (oral and anal to dilation). In contrast to the myenteric plexus, the submucosal plexus displayed only a moderate neuron loss. Neurons co-immunoreactive for VIP and calretinin survived disproportionately. As a consequence, these neurons may have contributed to maintain the epithelial barrier and allowed the chagasic patients to survive for decades, despite their severe disturbance of colonic motility. Due to its neuroprotective and neuroeffectory functions, VIP may play a key role in the development and duration of chagasic megacolon.
Patients with megaesophagus (ME) have increased prevalence of cancer of the esophagus. In contrast, a higher incidence of colorectal cancer is not observed in patients with megacolon (MC). MC is very common in some regions of Brazil, where it is mainly associated with Chagas disease. We reviewed the pathology records of surgical specimens of all patients submitted for surgical resection of MC in the Hospital das Clínicas of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto (HC-FMRP), from the University of São Paulo. We found that 894 patients were operated from 1952 until 2001 for MC resection. Mucosal ulcers, hyperplasia and chronic inflammation were frequently found, while polyps were uncommon. No patients with MC presented any type of colonic neoplasm. This observation reinforces the hypothesis that MC has a negative association with cancer of the colon. This seems to contradict the traditional concept of carcinogenesis in the colon, since patients with MC presents important chronic constipation that is thought to cause an increase in risk for colon cancer. MC is also associated with other risk factors for cancer of colon, such as hyperplasia, mucosal ulcers and chronic inflammation. In ME these factors lead to a remarkable increase in cancer risk. The study of mucosal cell proliferation in MC may provide new insights and useful information about the role of constipation in colonic carcinogenesis.
One frequent chronic syndrome of Chagas’ disease is megacolon, an irreversible dilation of a colonic segment. Extensive enteric neuron loss in the affected segment is regarded as key factor for deficient motility. Here, we assessed the quantitative balance between cholinergic and nitrergic neurons representing the main limbs of excitatory and inhibitory colonic motor innervation, respectively. From surgically removed megacolonic segments of four patients, each three myenteric wholemounts (from non-dilated oral, megacolonic and non-dilated anal parts) was immunohistochemically triple-stained for choline acetyltransferase, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the panneuronal human neuronal protein Hu C/D. Degenerative changes were most pronounced in the megacolonic and anal regions, e.g. bulked, honeycomb-like ganglia with few neurons which were partly enlarged or atrophic or vacuolated. Neuron counts from each 15 ganglia of 12 megacolonic wholemounts were compared with those of 12 age- and region-matched controls. Extensive neuron loss, mainly in megacolonic and anal wholemounts, was obvious. In all three regions derived from megacolonic samples, the proportion of NOS-positive neurons (control: 55%) was significantly increased: in non-dilated oral parts to 61% (p = 0.003), in megacolonic regions to 72% (p < 0.001) and in non-dilated anal regions to 78% (p < 0.001). We suggest the chronic dilation of megacolonic specimens to be due to the preponderance of the nitrergic, inhibitory input to the intestinal muscle. However, the observed neuronal imbalance was not restricted to the dilated regions: the non-dilated anal parts may be innervated by ascending, cholinergic axons emerging from less affected, more anally located regions.
DICA classification is a valid parameter to predict the risk of diverticulitis occurrence/recurrence in patients suffering from diverticular disease of the colon.
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