Engagement of the B cell antigen receptor initiates two concurrent processes, signaling and receptor internalization. While both are required for normal humoral immune responses, the relationship between these two processes is unknown. Herein, we demonstrate that following receptor ligation, a small subpopulation of B cell antigen receptors are inductively phosphorylated and selectively retained at the cell surface where they can serve as scaffolds for the assembly of signaling molecules. In contrast, the larger population of non-phosphorylated receptors is rapidly endocytosed. Each receptor can undergo only one of two mutually exclusive fates because the tyrosine-based motifs that mediate signaling when phosphorylated mediate internalization when not phosphorylated. Mathematical modeling indicates that the observed competition between receptor phosphorylation and internalization enhances signaling responses to low avidity ligands.
The naturally occurring neuron death of normal development has been shown to depend on trophic factors produced and released by target cells. It has also been shown that the afferent supply and local interactions play a role in the control of this degenerative phenomenon. We studied the effect of trophic factors produced by intrinsic retinal cells on the survival of retinal ganglion cells in vitro. Retinae of newborn hooded rats were retrogradely labelled with horseradish peroxidase injected into the superior colliculus to permit the identification of retinal ganglion cells in culture. We tested the effect of conditioned media either from aggregates or from explants of retinal cells from neonatal rats on the survival of ganglion cells in vitro. Our results showed that both conditioned media increased the survival of these cells. The trophic activity was dose-dependent, was maintained after dialysis against a 12 kDa membrane, was abolished by heating at 56 degrees C for 30 min, and was not found in conditioned medium from cerebral cortical explants. Conditioned medium obtained without fetal calf serum presented the same trophic effect. These results suggest that the local control of developmental neuron death by intrinsic retinal cells may be mediated by neurotrophic factors.
Background and Aims: The steroid ouabain is found in plasma and in many mammalian tissues, and is now considered as a hormone. In the immune system, ouabain regulates a number of lymphocyte functions, but little is known about its effects on monocyte function. Monocytes are important for adequate immune responses. The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of ouabain on mCD14 expression, a surface molecule involved in the response against Gram-negative bacteria and phagocytosis. Methods: Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from healthy donors were separated by density gradient centrifugation. Monocytes were separated by adherence and treated for 24 h with 100 nM ouabain. mCD14, CD1a and P-p38 expression was analyzed by flow cytometry. Inhibitors of cell-signaling pathways, i.e. SB202190, reduced glutathione, rottlerin, tyrphostin A23, genistein, chelerythrine chloride, PD98059, PP1 and Ly 294002, were used concomitantly with ouabain to observe their effect on mCD14 expression. Results: Ouabain induced a significant decrease in mCD14 expression. This feature was not related to receptor endocytosis or cell death. Furthermore, mCD14 downregulation did not reflect a shift in differentiation into dendritic cells because this hormone failed to induce CD1a expression. Amongst several inhibitors of cell-signaling pathways triggered by ouabain, only epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors (tyrphostin A23 and SB202109) significantly reverted the effect of ouabain on mCD14 expression. Accordingly, the levels of P-p38 were increased on monocytes after ouabain treatment. However, incubation with epidermal growth factor did not alter mCD14 expression. Conclusion: These findings suggest that ouabain downregulates mCD14 expression on monocytes through EGFR transactivation and p38 MAPK activation.
Several diseases are related to retinal ganglion cell death, such as glaucoma, diabetes and other retinopathies. Many studies have attempted to identify factors that could increase neuroprotection after axotomy of these cells. Interleukin-6 has been shown to be able to increase the survival and regeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in mixed culture as well as in vivo. In this work we show that the trophic effect of IL-6 is mediated by adenosine receptor (A2aR) activation and also by the presence of extracellular BDNF. We also show that there is a complex cross-talk between IL-6, BDNF, the Adenosine A1 and A2a receptors that results in neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells.
IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine classically denominated pro-inflammatory. It has been already demonstrated that IL-6 can increase the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in culture. In this work, we show that the trophic effect of IL-6 is mediated by adenosine receptor (A1R) activation. The neutralization of extracellular BDNF abolished the IL-6 effect and the treatment with IL-6 and CHA (an agonist of A1R) modulated BDNF expression as well as pCREB and pTrkB levels.
Macrophages infected with HIV-1 sustain viral replication for long periods of time, functioning as viral reservoirs. Therefore, recognition of factors that maintain macrophage survival and influence HIV-1 replication is critical to understanding the mechanisms that regulate the HIV-1–replicative cycle. Because HIV-1–infected macrophages release the nerve growth factor (NGF), and NGF neutralization reduces viral production, we further analyzed how this molecule affects HIV-1 replication. In the present study, we show that NGF stimulates HIV-1 replication in primary macrophages by signaling through its high-affinity receptor Tropomyosin-related Kinase A (TrKA), and with the involvement of reticular calcium, protein kinase C, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 kinase, and nuclear factor-κB. NGF-induced enhancement of HIV-1 replication occurred during the late events of the HIV-1–replicative cycle, with a concomitant increase in viral transcription and production. In addition, NGF reduced the synthesis of the cellular HIV-1 restriction factor APOBEC3G and also overrode its interferon-γ–induced up-regulation, allowing the production of a well-fitted virus. Because NGF-TrKA signaling is a crucial event for macrophage survival, it is possible that NGF-induced HIV-1 replication plays a role in the maintenance of HIV-1 reservoirs. Our study may contribute to the understanding of the immunopathogenesis of HIV-1 infection and provide insights about approaches aimed at limiting viral replication in HIV-1 reservoirs.
The control of natural cell death is mediated by neurotrophins released by target, afferent and glial cells. In the present work we show that treatment of retinal cells 'in vitro' for 48 h with 25 microM carbamylcholine induced a two-fold increase in retinal ganglion cells survival. This effect was dose-dependent and mediated by M1 receptors since it could be blocked by 1 microM telenzepine (a M1 receptor antagonist) and mimicked by 200 microM oxotremorine (a M1 receptor agonist). The effect of carbamylcholine was abolished by 10 microM BAPTA-AM (an intracellular Ca2+ chelator), 30 microM dantrolene (an inhibitor of ryanodinic receptors), 500 nM H-89 (an inhibitor of PKA), 1.25 microM chelerythrine chloride (an inhibitor of PKC) and 50 microM PD-98059 (a MEK inhibitor). Treatment with 10 microM genistein (an inhibitor of tyrosine kinase), 25 microM LY-294002 (a PI-3 kinase blocker), 30 nM brefeldin-A (a blocker of polypeptides release), 50 nM K-252a (a Trk receptor inhibitor) and 20 microM fluorodeoxyuridine (an inhibitor of cell proliferation) totally inhibited the effect of carbamylcholine. Taken together our results indicate that muscarinic activity controls the survival of retinal ganglion cells through a mechanism involving the release of polypeptides and activation of Irk receptors.
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