The aim of the present study was to analyse the changes in body composition of stunted children during a follow-up period and to test the hypothesis of a tendency to accumulate body fat as a consequence of undernutrition early in life. We selected fifty boys and girls aged 11 to 15, who were residents of slums in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Twenty were stunted (S) and thirty had normal stature (NS). The children's nutritional status and body composition were assessed through anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, at the beginning of the present study and after 3 years, and changes in lean mass (LM and LM%) and fat mass (FM and FM%) were calculated. Stunted boys accumulated more body fat (FM%: S=1.62%, NS=-3.40%; P=0.003) and gained less lean mass (LM%: S=-1.46, NS=3.21%; P=0.004). Stunted girls gained less lean mass (S=7.87 kg, NS=11.96 kg; P=0.032) and had significantly higher values of FM% at follow-up when compared with their baseline values (P=0.008), whereas non-stunted girls had a non-significant difference in FM% over time (P=0.386). These findings are important to understand the factors involved in the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity among poor populations, which appear to be associated with hunger during infancy and/or childhood.
Dendritic cells (DC) have the unique ability to present exogenous antigens via the major histocompatibility complex class I pathway to stimulate naive CD8+ T cells. In DCs with a non-functional mutation in Unc93b1 (3d mutation), endosomal acidification, phagosomal maturation, antigen degradation, antigen export to the cytosol and the function of the store-operated-Ca2+-entry regulator STIM1 are impaired. These defects result in compromised antigen cross-presentation and anti-tumor responses in 3d-mutated mice. Here, we show that UNC93B1 interacts with the calcium sensor STIM1 in the endoplasmic reticulum, a critical step for STIM1 oligomerization and activation. Expression of a constitutively active STIM1 mutant, which no longer binds UNC93B1, restores antigen degradation and cross-presentation in 3d-mutated DCs. Furthermore, ablation of STIM1 in mouse and human cells leads to a decrease in cross-presentation. Our data indicate that the UNC93B1 and STIM1 cooperation is important for calcium flux and antigen cross-presentation in DCs.
Background and Aims: The steroid ouabain is found in plasma and in many mammalian tissues, and is now considered as a hormone. In the immune system, ouabain regulates a number of lymphocyte functions, but little is known about its effects on monocyte function. Monocytes are important for adequate immune responses. The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of ouabain on mCD14 expression, a surface molecule involved in the response against Gram-negative bacteria and phagocytosis. Methods: Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from healthy donors were separated by density gradient centrifugation. Monocytes were separated by adherence and treated for 24 h with 100 nM ouabain. mCD14, CD1a and P-p38 expression was analyzed by flow cytometry. Inhibitors of cell-signaling pathways, i.e. SB202190, reduced glutathione, rottlerin, tyrphostin A23, genistein, chelerythrine chloride, PD98059, PP1 and Ly 294002, were used concomitantly with ouabain to observe their effect on mCD14 expression. Results: Ouabain induced a significant decrease in mCD14 expression. This feature was not related to receptor endocytosis or cell death. Furthermore, mCD14 downregulation did not reflect a shift in differentiation into dendritic cells because this hormone failed to induce CD1a expression. Amongst several inhibitors of cell-signaling pathways triggered by ouabain, only epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors (tyrphostin A23 and SB202109) significantly reverted the effect of ouabain on mCD14 expression. Accordingly, the levels of P-p38 were increased on monocytes after ouabain treatment. However, incubation with epidermal growth factor did not alter mCD14 expression. Conclusion: These findings suggest that ouabain downregulates mCD14 expression on monocytes through EGFR transactivation and p38 MAPK activation.
Objective Polyphosphate and heparin are anionic polymers released by activated mast cells and platelets that are known to stimulate the contact pathway of coagulation. These polymers promote both the autoactivation of factor XII and the assembly of complexes containing factor XI, prekallikrein, and high-molecular-weight kininogen. We are searching for salivary proteins from blood-feeding insects that counteract the effect of procoagulant and proinflammatory factors in the host, including elements of the contact pathway. Approach and Results Here, we evaluate the ability of the sand fly salivary proteins, PdSP15a and PdSP15b, to inhibit the contact pathway by disrupting binding of its components to anionic polymers. We attempt to demonstrate binding of the proteins to polyphosphate, heparin, and dextran sulfate. We also evaluate the effect of this binding on contact pathway reactions. We also set out to determine the x-ray crystal structure of PdSP15b and examine the determinants of relevant molecular interactions. Both proteins bind polyphosphate, heparin, and dextran sulfate with high affinity. Through this mechanism they inhibit the autoactivation of factor XII and factor XI, the reciprocal activation of factor XII and prekallikrein, the activation of factor XI by thrombin and factor XIIa, the cleavage of high-molecular-weight kininogen in plasma, and plasma extravasation induced by polyphosphate. The crystal structure of PdSP15b contains an amphipathic helix studded with basic side chains that forms the likely interaction surface. Conclusions The results of these studies indicate that the binding of anionic polymers by salivary proteins is used by blood feeders as an antihemostatic/anti-inflammatory mechanism.
PVDF was prepared by compression molding, and its phase content/structure was assessed by WAXD, DSC, and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. Next, PVDF samples were aged in bioethanol fuel at 60 °C or annealed in the same temperature by 30 ─ 180 days. Then, the influence of aging/annealing on thermal stability, thermal degradation kinetics, and lifetime of the PVDF was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG), as well as the structure was again examined. The crystallinity of ~41% (from WAXD) or ~49% (from DSC) were identified for unaged PVDF, without significant changes after aging or annealing. This PVDF presented not only one phase, but a mixture of α -, β - and γ -phases, α - and β -phases with more highlighted vibrational bands. Thermal degradation kinetics was evaluated using the non-isothermal Ozawa–Flynn–Wall method. The activation energy ( E a ) of thermal degradation was calculated for conversion levels of α = 5 ─ 50% at constant heating rates (5, 10, 20, and 40 °C min ─1 ), α = 10% was fixed for lifetime estimation. The results indicated that temperature alone does not affect the material, but its combination with bioethanol reduced the onset temperature and E a of primary thermal degradation. Additionally, the material lifetime decreased until about five decades ( T f = 25 °C and 90 days of exposition) due to the fluid effect after aging.
The microenvironment produced by solid tumors is inhibitory to the immune system, inducing dendritic cell (DC) alterations, but there is a paucity of information regarding haematological malignances. The aim of this study was to investigate DC differentiation under the influence of leukemic cell products. Monocytes from healthy volunteers were cultured in the presence of IL-4 and GM-CSF for the generation of immature DCs. Supernatants from leukemic cultures were added to monocyte cultures during differentiation. The lineages used were K562, a chronic myeloid leukemia, HL-60, a promyelocytic leukemia and DAUDI, originated from Burkitt lymphoma. It was observed that the expression of CD14 remained high and the CD1a was low in the presence of tumor supernatants, while non-malignant supernatants did not affect these parameters. Furthermore, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha production by monocytes during differentiation was increased by the presence of tumor supernatants. The modifications on CD14 and CD1a expressions could be mimicked by the addition of exogenous IL-1beta and partially inhibited by the neutralization of IL-1beta. These results suggest that soluble products from leukemic cells interfere with DC differentiation and, in the present work, this effect could be mediated by monocyte-derived IL-1beta in response to tumor supernatants.
in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com).ABSTRACT: Conventional and chain extended-modified solid-state polymerization (SSP) of postconsumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) from beverage bottles was investigated. SSP was carried out at several temperatures, reaction times, and 2,2 0 -bis-2-oxazoline (OXZ) or pyromellitic anhydride (ANP) concentrations. The OXZ was added by impregnation with chloroform or acetone solution. Higher molecular weights were reached when the reaction was carried out with OXZ, resulting in bimodal distribution. The molecular weights of the flakes reacted at 230 C for 4 h were 85,000, 95,000, and 100,000 for samples impregnated with 0, 0.5, and 1.25 wt % OXZ solution, respectively. In the case of reactions with ANP, branched chains were obtained. The thermal and thermal-mechanical-dynamic properties of these high-molecular-weight recycled PET were determined. For OXZ-reacted samples, the reduction of crystallinity was observed as the reaction time was increased, becoming evident the destruction of the crystalline phase. The chain extended samples did not show changes in thermal relaxations or thermal degradation behavior.
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