CCUMULATED CLINICAL EXPErience indicates that there is an inverse association between beta-cell function and chronic complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)-the higher the Cpeptide levels (an indirect measure of viable beta-cell function), the lower the incidence of microvascular complications of type 1 DM. 1 Since the establishment of the autoimmune etiology of type 1 DM in the late 1970s, many clinical trials analyzing the effects of different types of immune interventions demonstrated that beta-cell preservation is an achievable target in different degrees. 2,3 Based on the theory of possible reconstitution of immune tolerance after "immunologic reset" with autologous nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), 4 in 2007, we reported a phase 1/2 trial evaluating the safety and metabolic effects of autologous nonmyeloablative HSCT in 15 patients with newly diagnosed type 1 DM. 5 The majority of pa-Author Affiliations are listed at the end of this article.
Our study showed a high prevalence of PIMs use, which is associated with various clinical and social-demographic factors. When comparing both criteria through McNemar's test, PIMs use was considered different. The differences may have occurred because medications with high prevalence of use in Brazil were included in Beers criteria 2012 .
BackgroundMany studies reported that brief interventions are effective in reducing excessive drinking. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a protocol of brief intervention for college students (BASICS), delivered face-to-face, to reduce risky alcohol consumption and negative consequences.MethodsA systematic review with meta-analysis was performed by searching for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in Medline, PsycInfo, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases. A quality assessment of RCTs was made by using a validated scale. Combined mean effect sizes, using meta-analysis random-effects models, were calculated.Results18 studies were included in the review. The sample sizes ranged from 54 to 1275 (median = 212). All studies presented a good evaluation of methodological quality and four were found to have excellent quality. After approximately 12 months of follow-up, students receiving BASICS showed a significant reduction in alcohol consumption (difference between means = −1.50 drinks per week, 95% CI: -3.24 to −0.29) and alcohol-related problems (difference between means = −0.87, 95% CI: -1.58 to −0.20) compared to controls.ConclusionsOverall, BASICS lowered both alcohol consumption and negative consequences in college students. Gender and peer factors seem to play an important role as moderators of behavior change in college drinking. Characteristics of BASICS procedure have been evaluated as more favorable and acceptable by students in comparison with others interventions or control conditions. Considerations for future researches were discussed.
Os riscos envolvidos na transfusão de sangue e hemoderivados podem ser conseqüentes de procedimentos inadequados, erros ou omissões dos profissionais responsáveis pela transfusão. O presente estudo objetivou determinar o nível de conhecimento sobre o assunto e a adequação das práticas transfusionais dos profissionais de Enfermagem que atuam em um grande hospital universitário do interior de São Paulo. O estudo foi realizado durante um treinamento teórico em Hemoterapia, onde foi aplicado um instrumento de coleta de dados antes e após o treinamento, caracterizando estes profissionais e avaliando seus conhecimentos sobre o tema. Participaram enfermeiros, auxiliares e técnicos de enfermagem responsáveis pela administração de transfusões. Mais da metade se sente pouco ou mal informada sobre o assunto. Grande parte referiu que os pacientes não são orientados sobre sinais e sintomas de reações transfusionais, ainda referindo procedimentos incorretos para aquecimento do sangue. A avaliação de conhecimentos evidenciou lacunas importantes na capacitação destes profissionais. Rev. bras. hematol. hemoter. 2007;29(2):160-167.
Palavras-chave:Conhecimento; capacitação em serviço; hemoterapia; transfusão de sangue.
OBJECTIVETo analyze vaccination coverage and factors associated with a complete immunization scheme in children < 5 years old.METHODSThis cross-sectional household census survey evaluated 1,209 children < 5 years old living in Bom Jesus, Angola, in 2010. Data were obtained from interviews, questionnaires, child immunization histories, and maternal health histories. The statistical analysis used generalized linear models, in which the dependent variable followed a binary distribution (vaccinated, unvaccinated) and the association function was logarithmic and had the children’s individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors as independent variables.RESULTSVaccination coverage was 37.0%, higher in children < 1 year (55.0%) and heterogeneous across neighborhoods; 52.0% of children of both sexes had no immunization records. The prevalence rate of vaccination significantly varied according to child age, mother’s level of education, family size, ownership of household appliances, and destination of domestic waste.CONCLUSIONSVulnerable groups with vaccination coverage below recommended levels continue to be present. Some factors indicate inequalities that represent barriers to full immunization, indicating the need to implement more equitable policies. The knowledge of these factors contributes to planning immunization promotion measures that focus on the most vulnerable groups.
Introduction: Forecasting dengue cases in a population by using time-series models can provide useful information that can be used to facilitate the planning of public health interventions. The objective of this article was to develop a forecasting model for dengue incidence in Campinas, southeast Brazil, considering the Box-Jenkins modeling approach. Methods: The forecasting model for dengue incidence was performed with R software using the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model. We fitted a model based on the reported monthly incidence of dengue from 1998 to 2008, and we validated the model using the data collected between January and December of 2009. Results: SARIMA (2,1,2) (1,1,1) 12 was the model with the best fit for data. This model indicated that the number of dengue cases in a given month can be estimated by the number of dengue cases occurring one, two and twelve months prior. The predicted values for 2009 are relatively close to the observed values. Conclusions: The results of this article indicate that SARIMA models are useful tools for monitoring dengue incidence. We also observe that the SARIMA model is capable of representing with relative precision the number of cases in a next year.
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