We describe 2 bat-transmitted outbreaks in remote, rural areas of Portel and Viseu Municipalities, Pará State, northern Brazil. Central nervous system specimens were taken after patients' deaths and underwent immunofluorescent assay and histopathologic examination for rabies antigens; also, specimens were injected intracerebrally into suckling mice in an attempt to isolate the virus. Strains obtained were antigenically and genetically characterized. Twenty-one persons died due to paralytic rabies in the 2 municipalities. Ten rabies virus strains were isolated from human specimens; 2 other cases were diagnosed by histopathologic examination. Isolates were antigenically characterized as Desmodus rotundus variant 3 (AgV3). DNA sequencing of 6 strains showed that they were genetically close to D. rotundus–related strains isolated in Brazil. The genetic results were similar to those obtained by using monoclonal antibodies and support the conclusion that the isolates studied belong to the same rabies cycle, the virus variants found in the vampire bat D. rotundus.
We analysed human sewage located in Florianopolis (Santa Catalina, Brazil) from late October until the Brazil lockdown on early March. We detected SARS-CoV-2 in two samples collected independently on 27th November 2019 (5.49 ± 0.02 log genome copies/L). Subsequent samplings were positive until 4th March 2020 (coinciding with the first COVID-19 case reported in Santa Catalina), with a SARS-CoV-2 RNA increase of one log (6.68 ± 0.02 log genome copies/L). Our results show that SARS-CoV-2 has been circulating in Brazil since late November 2019, much earlier than the first reported case in the Americas (21st January 2020, USA).
The present study reports the first outbreak of autochthonous canine visceral leishmaniasis in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Following the report of two cases of CVL, the Control Center of Zoonotic Diseases conducted a serological survey by ELISA and IFAT assays in seven districts of the Santa Catarina Island. Eleven seropositive dogs of autochthonous transmission were used in the present study. Infection by Leishmania sp. was confirmed by parasitological examination of bone marrow, liver, spleen and lymph nodes, culture in Schneider's medium and PCR. Leishmania sp. isolates were characterized by PCR-RFLP and hybridization with specific probes, allowing for the identification of Leishmania infantum. Autochthonous transmission of this disease in an area with high tourist traffic presents a major public health concern and signifies the emergence of an important zoonosis in southern Brazil. Therefore, the implementation of surveillance and control measures is imperative to prevent the spread of the disease among the canine population as well as transmission to the human population. infecção por Leishmania sp. foi realizada pelo exame parasitológico da medula óssea, fígado, baço e linfonodos, cultura em meio Schneider e PCR. Os isolados de Leishmania sp. foram caracterizados por PCR-RFLP e hibridação com sondas específicas, permitindo a identificação de Leishmania infantum. A transmissão autóctone da LCV em uma área com grande fluxo turístico como Florianópolis representa um preocupante risco à saúde pública e o surgimento de uma importante zoonose no sul do Brasil. Neste contexto, a implementação de medidas de vigilância e controle da doença são fundamentais para evitar a propagação da doença entre a população canina, bem como a transmissão para a população humana.TERMOS DE INDEXAÇÃO: Leishmaniose visceral canina, Leishmania infantum, zoonose, doenças negligenciadas, saúde pública.
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