Background: The present research addresses the issue of skin aging and corresponding skin treatment individualization. Particular research question was on the development of a simplified criterion supporting patientspecific decisions about the necessity and intensity of skin treatment. Basing on published results and a wide pool of our own experimental data, a hypothesis is formulated that a difference between biologic and chronologic age can be used as a powerful indicator of skin aging. Methods: In the present paper, we report the results of studies with 80 volunteers between 15 and 65 years of age linking skin cell profile parameters to biologic and chronologic age. Biologic age was calculated using the empirical expressions based on the forced vital lung capacity, systolic blood pressure, urea concentration, and blood cholesterol level. Epidermis and derma cellular structures were studied using skin biopsy samples taken from the gluteal region. Results: The present study supports the conclusion that biologic and chronologic age difference is changing in the progress of life. Our studies are showing that time point when calculated biologic age becomes equal to the chronologic one reflecting the onset of specific changes in the age dependencies of experimentally measured skin cell profile parameters. Thus, it is feasible that a difference between chronologic and individually assessed biologic age indeed reflects the process of skin aging. Conclusions: With all reservations to the relatively small number of study participants, it seems feasible that a difference between biologic and chronologic age can be used as an indicator of skin aging. Additional research linking blood immune profile and skin topography to the difference of biologic and chronologic age (reported in the following paper) provides further support for the formulated hypotheses. So, a difference between calculated biologic age and chronologic age can be used as an individualized criterion supporting decisions on skin treatment strategies. Further research involving larger numbers of participants aimed at optimizing the expressions for calculating biologic age could lead to reliable and easily available express criterion supporting the decision for the individualized skin treatment.
Background: Present research addresses the issue of skin aging and corresponding skin treatment individualization. Particular research question was on the developing of simplified criterion supporting patient-specific decision on the necessity and intensity of skin treatment. Basing on the published results and a wide pool of experimental data, we have formulated a hypothesis that a difference between biologic and chronologic age can be used as an express criterion of skin aging. Methods: In present paper, we report the results of studies with 80 volunteers between 15 and 65 years of age, linking parameters reflecting immune state, skin state, and topography to the difference between biologic and chronologic age. Facial skin topography, skin moisture, sebum level, and skin elasticity were studied using commercial devices. Blood immunology studies were performed using venous blood samples. Correlations between all measured parameters and age difference were calculated. Also, cross correlations between skin cell profile and blood immune profile parameters, and skin roughness parameters were calculated. Results: Age dependencies of the blood immunological parameters on the biologic and chronologic age difference are less pronounced as compared to the changes in skin cell profile parameters. However, the changes in the tendencies when biologic age becomes equal to chronologic one are visible for all studied parameters. All measured skin roughness parameters show correlations with age difference, but average skin roughness and depth of the deepest profile valley have the largest correlation coefficient values. Many of the measured skin cell profile and blood immunology parameters show strong correlations with average skin roughness and deepest profile valley, with some of the coefficients exceeding 0.5-0.6. Conclusions: Basing on own experiments and published research results, it is possible to suggest using the difference between calculated biologic age and chronologic age as an individualized criterion supporting decisions on skin treatment strategy. Further research involving larger numbers of participants and aiming on optimizing the expressions for calculating biologic age could lead to reliable and easily available express criterion supporting the decision making for an individualized skin treatment.
Over recent decades, multiple data were accumulated on immunotropic activity of Bifidum flora, based on effects of these bacteria on isolated lymphoid follicles, dendritic cells, B-cell aggregates, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as participation of bifidoflora in the recognition of non-self during the development of microsymbiocenosis. The relevance of research in the field is associated both with fundamental issues of human host/microbiota symbiosis, but also with the prospects of practical application of the knowledge gained towards design of probiotics that affect the immune system. This article presents the results concerning effects of supernatant and bacterial cells of Bifidobacterium bifidum 791 (B. bifidum 791) strain in the model of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs). We used the reference strain B. bifidum 791 (Russian Collection of Industrial Microorganisms from the GosNII Genetika Federal State Enterprise, Deposition No. AS-1247), which is used in production of the probiotic drug Bifidumbacterin (CJSC Ecopolis, Kovrov). Mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated from peripheral blood of 20 healthy donors. MNCs were stained with monoclonal antibodies for CD4, CD8, CD3, CD25, CD69, CD56 (Beckman Coulter, USA). Analysis of the cellular subsets was performed by multicolor flow cytometry with Cytomics FC500 instrument (Beckman Coulter, USA). The experiments were carried out in duplicate. The studies have shown that probiotic strains have an activating and modulating effect upon immunocompetent cells. The studied B. bifidum 791 strain had an immunomodulatory effect on the cells of nonspecific and adaptive immunity: it increased the percentage of CD69+ cells in the subpopulation of CD3+CD8+T lymphocytes, CD69 (%) and CD25 (%) NK cells, and promoted activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes. The supernatant of bifidobacteria had a more pronounced effect on MNCs. E.g., it increased the expression of CD69 by Th cells, induced the expression of CD25 by T cytotoxic cells, and increased the CD69 and CD25 expression (%) by NK cells compared to B. bifidum 791 bacterial cells. These data contribute to understanding the mechanisms of immunoregulatory influence of normobiota (in the Bifidobacteria models) by formation of symbiotic interactions microbiota host and contribute to the development of a new research area, i.e., infectious symbiology. Further study of immunomodulatory activity of bifidoflora has the prospectives of searching and selection of Bifidobacteria strains, in order to create new targeted probiotic preparations.
The restoration of damaged tissues in periodontal diseases is not only a medical problem, but also a social one. Periodontal diseases often entail the loss of a large number of teeth (more than with any other disease of the dentition), as a result, a violation of the act of chewing and speech, a negative effect on the general condition of the body and, as a result, a decrease in the quality of human life. Purpose of the study: to study the regenerative activity of a lyophilized extract of a chicken embryo of various concentrations in the composition of hyaluronic acid in relation to the culture of PDLSC cells in an in vitro experiment. Comparison groups: A solution of 1% unmodified hyaluronic acid containing lyophilized chicken embryo extract in three concentrations: 300 μg/ml, 150 μg/ml, 75 μg/ml. As a control, 1% solution of unmodified hyaluronic acid. Hyaluronic acid is a natural substance that is an important component of the extracellular matrix as a mineralized and non-mineralized tissue. Its use attracts the attention of specialists as an object capable of acquiring new properties with its various modifications. In our laboratory studies, stem cells from a culture of human periodontal disease were used. Periodontitis stem cells (PDLSC periodontal ligament) were discovered in 2004. Cell adhesion and tissue penetration were investigated by impedimetry. Analysis to assess cell viability was carried out using a solution containing a water-soluble tetrazolium salt. Differentiation of osteogenic direction without induction was measured three weeks after dilution of stem cells in traditional culture medium. Staining was carried out according to the Koss method. To assess mineralization, cells were stained with alizarin red, followed by assessment of calcium deposition in them. It was found that the resulting PDLSC cell population during the experiment was heterogeneous and showed healthy fibroblast morphology in all three study groups. Lyophilized extract of chicken embryo as part of a preparation based on hyaluronic acid does not significantly affect the survival and proliferation of PDLSC cells, however, at high concentrations (150 μg/ml and 300 μg/ml) it induces osteogenic activity of cells, increases mineralization without causing calcium deposition, which indicates regenerative activity. Osteogenic transdifferentiation is an attractive way to create cells of osteogenic cellular origin. The results of our study show that they can be used to model bone diseases.
Резюме. Исследованы различные эндогенные и синтетические пептиды с целью выявления их антибактериальной активности. Исследования показали, что при исследовании дозозависимых эффектов антибактериальной активности иммунотропного пептида ZP-2, входящего в состав активного центра GM-CSF, была выявлена ярко выраженная антибактериальная активность как по спектру активности, так и по степени бактерицидного действия в низких концентрациях. Комбинированное применение вещества, полученного из супернатанта CD34 + CD45клеток и синтетического пептида ZP-2 значительно потенцируют действие друг друга. Возможно данное явление связано с различным механизмом их действия на бактерии. Полученные данные свидетельствуют о том, что синтетические пептиды обладают не только иммуностимулирующей активностью, но и прямым антибактериальным действием и имеют серьезную перспективу при создании новых антибактериальных препаратов с уникальными свойствами. Таким образом, полученный пептид может быть использован не только как иммуностимулирующее, но и как антибактериальное средство.
Гольцов С.В. и др. Medical Immunology (Russia)/Meditsinskaya Immunologiya Медицинская Иммунология клеток, оценить их функцию и степень их реагирования в ответ на какие-либо воздействия внешней и внутренней среды. Широкомасштабное применение цитоиммунограммы в перспективе позволит создать половозрастной регистр состояния кожи в норме и патологии, что позволит определять степень реагирования кожи на воздействия среды, измерять активность клеточных субпопуляций нативной кожи в условиях нормы и патологии, использовать критерий возрастных изменений кожи, объективно оценивать динамику заболевания кожи, индивидуально подбирать лекарственный препарат и контролировать эффективность применяемых наружных лекарственных средств.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) ranks first among chronic joint diseases. The disease often affects people at their working age, being accompanied by significant decrease in the life quality of patients and their early disability. Rheumatoid arthritis is an immunoinflammatory rheumatic disease. Therefore, the immune system provides evolving focus of primary damage, its persistence and periodic exacerbation. Elucidation of intercellular relationships mediated by cytokines at various stages of the chronic inflammatory process is required in order to develop immunotherapeutic approaches, aimed for both recovery from exacerbations and maintenance of remission state. Purpose of our study was to evaluate cellular composition and cytokine profile of synovial fluid in the patients with rheumatoid arthritis at acute phase and in remission state.We have studied the samples of synovial fluid taken in 60 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, with 30 subjects being at acute stage of the disease, and 30 patients in remission. Cellular composition and cytokine profile were assessed in the clinical samples. There were 21 women and 9 men at the acute stage (57.0±15.4 years old), with the disease duration of 8.55±6.9 years. The average age of 19 women and 11 men examined in remission state was 53.5±10.9 years, with comparable duration of illness (6.9±5.8 years). The leukocyte phenotyping was performed with a CytoFLEX flow cytometer (Beckman Coulter, USA). The cytokine contents were measured by enzyme immunoassay using a standard set of reagents from the “Proteinovy Contour” LLC (Russia). The results were registered by a Multiscan photometer (Labsystems, Finland).During the disease exacerbation, the leukocyte contents in synovial fluid increased 2.4-fold, as compared to the remission values. The cellular infiltrate was represented by neutrophils, whereas the contents of lymphocytes and monocytes did not change. Increased migration of neutrophils was accompanied by an 8-fold increase in TNFα levels, compared with remission state, and IL-1β levels were increased by 6.3 times. The absolute number of CD3+T lymphocytes, CD16+CD56+B cells, and CD3-CD19+NK during exacerbation was similar to the remission levels. However, the number of T cell subpopulations was changed, i.e., the number of CD4+ lymphocytes was decreased, and CD8+ cell counts were increased, like as numbers of Treg lymphocytes and NKT cells which showed a significant increase. A 4.3-fold increase in the IL-4 concentration during the RA exacerbation suggested the predominance of Th2 immune response. During remission, the concentrations of IL-6 and IFNγ in synovial fluid were increased, respectively, by 1.5 times and by 2.5 times, which is typical for activated Th1 response.
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