An extremely high degree of circularly polarized photoluminescence (CPPL) and electroluminescence (CPEL) (dissymmetry factor values: |g | = 0.72 and |g | = 1.13) are generated from twisted stacking of achiral conjugated polymer induced by nonemitting chiral dopant of high helical twisting power for the first time. Using a theoretical analysis incorporating the Stokes parameter, the twisting angle and birefringence of the aligned conjugated polymer, and the degree of linear polarization in the emitted light are found to make a roughly equal contribution to the degree of CPEL as to the degree of CPPL. Moreover, it is also found that the location of the recombination zone within the emitting layer is a crucial parameter for determining the difference in the dissymmetry factor between CPEL and CPPL. This result is applied to an organic light-emitting display to improve the luminous efficiency by 60%.
The direct emission of circularly polarized (CP) light improves the efficiency of an organic light-emitting diode and characterizes the secondary structure of proteins. In most cases, CP light is generated from a luminescent layer containing chiral characteristics, thereby generating only one kind of CP light in an entire device. Here, we propose direct CP light emissions using a twisted achiral conjugate polymer without any chiral dopant as an emitting layer (EML). The twisted structure is induced in the mesogenic conjugate polymer due to its elasticity by applying different alignment directions to its upper and lower interfaces. Furthermore, we demonstrate the simultaneous emission of orthogonal CP light in a single luminescent device by patterning different alignment directions on the surfaces of the EML. The light source with multipolarization including the orthogonal CP states is applicable to many applications in biosensors and optical devices.
These experiments suggest that intrathecal edrophonium or neostigmine produces an antagonism on touch-evoked allodynia at the spinal level in a rat model of neuropathic pain and that the antiallodynic action of cholinesterase inhibitors is probably mediated by a spinal muscarinic system, especially at the M1 receptor subtype.
Purpose -The paper aims to propose a novel dynamic tracing task model to enhance the traceability range along the supply chain beyond simple distribution channels. It further extends the study by implementing the system architecture with the proposed data model to support the dynamic tracing task. Design/methodology/approach -Typical processes of supply chain in manufacturing industries using bill of material data to extract and define information requirements are followed. The data elements are systematically selected and explained in the proposed model step by step. Findings -This paper found that existing Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) data management scheme has to be modified so as to provide end-to-end traceability.Research limitations/implications -Validation of the proposed model and system architecture should be done through actual implementation in industrial settings. Practical implications -The paper gives an insight to many system managers and executors in how full traceability along the supply chain can actually be realized. Originality/value -Several studies have discussed the traceability issues but failed to construct a system and methodologies to obtain the full traceability range. However, this paper contributes by presenting the specific methodological steps which can provide powerful solutions to build a system for traceability, exploiting RFID technology.
Moon for their encouragement and support. I am deeply indebted to my wife, and my daughters for their love, caring, and understanding. Without their love and support, this journey would have been much harder. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my wife's parents, my brother-in-law, and my sister-in-law for their love, and support. I am eternally grateful to my parents, my brother, and my sister for being a constant source of encouragement and motivation throughout my life. vi
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