The increasing adoption of the Linked Data principles brought with it an unprecedented dimension to the Web, transforming the traditional Web of Documents to a vibrant information ecosystem, also known as the Web of Data. This transformation, however, does not come without any pain points. Similar to the Web of Documents, the Web of Data is heterogenous in terms of the various domains it covers. The diversity of the Web of Data is also reflected in its quality. Data quality impacts the fitness for use of the data for the application at hand, and choosing the right dataset is often a challenge for data consumers. In this quantitative empirical survey, we analyse 130 datasets (≈ 3.7 billion quads), extracted from the latest Linked Open Data Cloud using 27 Linked Data quality metrics, and provide insights into the current quality conformance. Furthermore, we publish the quality metadata for each assessed dataset as Linked Data, using the Dataset Quality Vocabulary (daQ). This metadata is then used by data consumers to search and filter possible datasets based on different quality criteria. Thereafter, based on our empirical study, we present an aggregated view of the Linked Data quality in general. Finally, using the results obtained from the quality assessment empirical study, we use the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) test in order to identify the key quality indicators that can give us sufficient information about a dataset's quality.
Pandemics tend to have higher occurrence (morbidity) in younger individuals but higher mortality for the elderly. The higher rate of mortality of COVID-19 in elderly individuals has been discussed in many reports. However, this pandemic is a double-edged sword as this comment shows higher morbidity rates in elderly as well. This is shown by comparing the age distribution of cases in China and South Korea to the relative populations. In every case, the relative number of elderly contracting the virus is far higher than the proportion of elderly in the population. This is unlike past pandemics and shows that aging populations are at an even higher risk than the perceived age dependent rates may imply.
Why do some soccer bettors lose more money than others? In an efficient prediction market, each gambler should break-even before costs (but losing a constant amount after costs, reflecting the bookmaker's margin). Previous empirical studies across numerous sports betting markets show that bets on longshots tend to lose more than bets on favourites (favourite-longshot bias). We use 163,992 soccer odds from ten European leagues to test plausible hypotheses around why some soccer bettors lose more money than others. Are soccer bettors with above average losses simply biased, or are their losses driven by betting on events that are inherently unpredictable? We confirm the existence of favourite-longshot bias in soccer in this sample, but find another surprising feature of betting on longshots. As measured by the Brier score, bookmakers' odds were better predictors of longshots than favourites, suggesting another potential channel whereby bettors' preference for betting on longshots may cost them dearly.^ <100 Observations, ^^ <50 observations, ^^^ <10 observations Profit/Loss columns show the percentage profit/loss made if a unit bet is placed on odds recorded within this range. Expected Profit/Loss columns are derived from the bookmaker margin.
Purpose. To evaluate the visual outcomes and effect of phacoemulsification surgery on the progression of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods. Retrospective, noncomparative, and interventional case series. Thirty eyes from 29 subjects with neovascular AMD treated with intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections who underwent phacoemulsification and had a postsurgery follow-up of 6 months were included. LogMAR best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was assessed preoperatively; 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively; and finally at the last visit. The frequency of anti-VEGF therapy, calculated as the number of intravitreal injections per month, and central macular thickness (CMT) before and after cataract surgery were determined. Results. Median (range) logMAR BCVA was 0.69 (0.16 to 1.32) preoperatively; 0.55 (−0.04 to 1.32) at 1 month, 0.52 (−0.1 to 1.32) at 3 months, and 0.50 (0.0 to 1.32) at 6 months postoperatively; and 0.6 (0.0 to 1.4) at final visit (P = 0.0011). There was no difference in the frequency of anti-VEGF injections between the immediate 6 months before and after phacoemulsification, which was equal to 0.1667 injections per month (P = 0.6377). Median CMT measured 203 μm preoperatively, which temporarily increased to 238 μm at 1 month after surgery (P = 0.0093) and then spontaneously returned to baseline, measuring 212.5 μm at 3 months postoperatively (P = 0.3811). Conclusion. Phacoemulsification surgery significantly improved vision in patients with neovascular AMD, with no increased need for anti-VEGF injections to keep the macula dry postoperatively.
This paper is available as Open-Access thanks to a donation from Pinnacle SportsThis study summarizes the key methods of displaying probabilities as odds and provides simple mathematical derivation of a number of key statements in setting odds. Firstly it estimates the expected bookmaker profit as a function of wagers placed and bookmaker margin. Moreover it shows that odds set by bookmakers should have implied probabilities that add up to at least one, otherwise arbitrage is present. Bookmakers can increase profitability by offering more multiples, also known as accumulators, and can lower variation in payouts by maintaining the ratio of wagers and implied probability per outcome.
Traditional challenges insurers face include: (1) asymmetric information-the inability to price a policyholder correctly; (2) moral hazards-the change of attitude following cover; and (3) claims management. In this chapter, we discuss how disruptive technologies are evolving in the insurance sector and the challenges faced in their implementation. We show how large and continuous datasets are transforming the general insurance markets and their business processes, as well
Abstract:The insurance industry plays an important role for European economic stability and the threats and opportunities it faces should be carefully determined. In this paper we highlight the main challenges by using a Political, Economic, Social and Technological (PEST) analysis. This work applies conventional actuarial thought on this area by focusing strictly on the European sector.
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