The increasing adoption of the Linked Data principles brought with it an unprecedented dimension to the Web, transforming the traditional Web of Documents to a vibrant information ecosystem, also known as the Web of Data. This transformation, however, does not come without any pain points. Similar to the Web of Documents, the Web of Data is heterogenous in terms of the various domains it covers. The diversity of the Web of Data is also reflected in its quality. Data quality impacts the fitness for use of the data for the application at hand, and choosing the right dataset is often a challenge for data consumers. In this quantitative empirical survey, we analyse 130 datasets (≈ 3.7 billion quads), extracted from the latest Linked Open Data Cloud using 27 Linked Data quality metrics, and provide insights into the current quality conformance. Furthermore, we publish the quality metadata for each assessed dataset as Linked Data, using the Dataset Quality Vocabulary (daQ). This metadata is then used by data consumers to search and filter possible datasets based on different quality criteria. Thereafter, based on our empirical study, we present an aggregated view of the Linked Data quality in general. Finally, using the results obtained from the quality assessment empirical study, we use the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) test in order to identify the key quality indicators that can give us sufficient information about a dataset's quality.
The increasing variety of Linked Data on the Web makes it challenging to determine the quality of this data and, subsequently, to make this information explicit to data consumers. Despite the availability of a number of tools and frameworks to assess Linked Data Quality, the output of such tools is not suitable for machine consumption, and thus consumers can hardly compare and rank datasets in the order of fitness for use . This article describes a conceptual methodology for assessing Linked Datasets, and Luzzu; a framework for Linked Data Quality Assessment. Luzzu is based on four major components: (1) an extensible interface for defining new quality metrics; (2) an interoperable , ontology-driven back-end for representing quality metadata and quality problems that can be re-used within different semantic frameworks; (3) scalable dataset processors for data dumps, SPARQL endpoints, and big data infrastructures; and (4) a customisable ranking algorithm taking into account user-defined weights. We show that Luzzu scales linearly against the number of triples in a dataset. We also demonstrate the applicability of the Luzzu framework by evaluating and analysing a number of statistical datasets against a variety of metrics. This article contributes towards the definition of a holistic data quality lifecycle, in terms of the co-evolution of linked datasets, with the final aim of improving their quality.
Abstract-The increasing variety of Linked Data on the Web makes it challenging to determine the quality of this data, and subsequently to make this information explicit to data consumers. Despite the availability of a number of tools and frameworks to assess Linked Data Quality, the output of such tools is not suitable for machine consumption, and thus consumers can hardly compare and rank datasets in the order of fitness for use. This paper describes Luzzu, a framework for Linked Data Quality Assessment. Luzzu is based on four major components:(1) an extensible interface for defining new quality metrics; (2) an interoperable, ontology-driven back-end for representing quality metadata and quality problems that can be reused within different semantic frameworks; (3) a scalable stream processor for data dumps and SPARQL endpoints; and (4) a customisable ranking algorithm taking into account user-defined weights. We show that Luzzu scales linearly against the number of triples in a dataset. We also demonstrate the applicability of the Luzzu framework by evaluating and analysing a number of statistical datasets with regard to relevant metrics.
With the increasing application of Linked Open Data, assessing the quality of datasets by computing quality metrics becomes an issue of crucial importance. For large and evolving datasets, an exact, deterministic computation of the quality metrics is too time consuming or expensive. We employ probabilistic techniques such as Reservoir Sampling, Bloom Filters and Clustering Coefficient estimation for implementing a broad set of data quality metrics in an approximate but sufficiently accurate way. Our implementation is integrated in the comprehensive data quality assessment framework Luzzu. We evaluated its performance and accuracy on Linked Open Datasets of broad relevance.
The Web of Data is an increasingly rich source of information, which makes it useful for Big Data analysis. However, there is no guarantee that this Web of Data will provide the consumer with truthful and valuable information. Most research has focused on Big Data's Volume, Velocity, and Variety dimensions. Unfortunately, Veracity and Value, often regarded as the fourth and fifth dimensions, have been largely overlooked. In this paper we discuss the potential of Linked Data methods to tackle all five V's, and particularly propose methods for addressing the last two dimensions. We draw parallels between Linked and Big Data methods, and propose the application of existing methods to improve and maintain quality and address Big Data's veracity challenge
Data quality is commonly defined as fitness for use. The problem of identifying quality of data is faced by many data consumers. Data publishers often do not have the means to identify quality problems in their data. To make the task for both stakeholders easier, we have developed the Dataset Quality Ontology (daQ). daQ is a core vocabulary for representing the results of quality benchmarking of a linked dataset. It represents quality metadata as multi-dimensional and statistical observations using the Data Cube vocabulary. Quality metadata are organised as a self-contained graph, which can, e.g., be embedded into linked open datasets. We discuss the design considerations, give examples for extending daQ by custom quality metrics, and present use cases such as analysing data versions, browsing datasets by quality, and link identification. We finally discuss how data cube visualisation tools enable data publishers and consumers to analyse better the quality of their data
Quality is a complicated and multifarious topic in contemporary Linked Data research. The aspect of literal quality in particular has not yet been rigorously studied. Nevertheless, analyzing and improving the quality of literals is important since literals form a substantial (one in seven statements) and crucial part of the Semantic Web. Specifically, literals allow infinite value spaces to be expressed and they provide the linguistic entry point to the LOD Cloud. We present a toolchain that builds on the LOD Laundromat data cleaning and republishing infrastructure and that allows us to analyze the quality of literals on a very large scale, using a collection of quality criteria we specify in a systematic way. We illustrate the viability of our approach by lifting out two particular aspects in which the current LOD Cloud can be immediately improved by automated means: value canonization and language tagging. Since not all quality aspects can be addressed algorithmically, we also give an overview of other problems that can be used to guide future endeavors in tooling, training, and best practice formulation.
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