a ResumenLas poliaminas son una familia de compuestos nitrogenados ampliamente distribuidos en los sistemas biológicos. Numerosos estudios han descrito el posible papel de las poliaminas en la salud humana y durante las primeras etapas de la vida. Sus efectos beneficiosos se han relacionado con el crecimiento, maduración y diferenciación celular. Estudios adicionales deben establecer las dosis y proporciones más adecuadas de cada una de las poliaminas para su adición a fórmulas infantiles. En este artículo se han revisado los conocimientos actuales sobre las características de las poliaminas y sus posibles implicaciones en el desarrollo y la salud del lactante. Palabras clave: fórmula infantil, poliaminas, putrescina, espermidina, espermina. AbstRActPolyamines are a family of nitrogenous compounds widely distributed in biological systems. Numerous studies have described their possible role in human health and the early stages of life. Its beneficial effects have been associated with cellular growth, maturation and differentiation. Further studies are needed to establish the appropriate dose and proportions of each of the polyamines for addition to infant formulas. In the present article, current knowledge on the characteristics of polyamines is reviewed, and their possible implications on the development andhealth of babies during their first months of life. Key words: infant formula, polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, spermine.http://dx.doi.org/10.5546/aap.2012.244 IntRoduccIónDada la trascendencia de la alimentación en las primeras etapas de la vida, tanto para el óptimo desarrollo físico e intelectual del niño como para la prevención de enfermedades cróni-cas en la vida adulta, la incorporación de nuevos ingredientes a las fórmulas lácteas es hoy objeto de numerosas investigaciones. El objetivo de dichos estudios es conseguir que estos productos sean semejantes en composición al patrón de oro que es la leche materna, y que los contiene de forma natural.
Brassicaceae plants are of great interest for human consumption due to their wide variety and nutritional qualities. Of the more than 4000 species that make up this family, about a hundred varieties of 6–8 genera are extensively cultivated. One of the most interesting aspects is its high content of glucosinolates, which are plant secondary metabolites with widely demonstrated anti-oncogenic properties that make them healthy. The most relevant Brassicaceae studies related to food and melatonin are examined in this paper. The role of melatonin as a beneficial agent in seedling grown mainly in cabbage and rapeseed and in the postharvest preservation of broccoli is especially analyzed. The beneficial effect of melatonin treatments on the organoleptic properties of these commonly consumed vegetables can be of great interest in the agri-food industry. Melatonin application extends the shelf life of fresh-cut broccoli while maintaining optimal visual and nutritional parameters. In addition, an integrated model indicating the role of melatonin on the organoleptic properties, the biosynthesis of glucosinolates and the regulatory action of these health-relevant compounds with anti-oncogenic activity is presented.
In this study, the effect of the particle-size fractionation (Ø < 0.212 mm and 0.212 mm < Ø < 0.991 mm) and chlorophyll extraction on the nutritional and technological properties of the powdered artichoke ingredient was evaluated. The contents of minerals, protein, fat, carbohydrates and dietary fibre together with the content in bioactive compounds such as inulin and phenolics were determined. Other properties such as water-and oil-holding capacities, water activity and antioxidant capacity were measured. The ingredient with chlorophyll and the lowest particle size presented the highest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (8.4 mg of vitamin C equivalents per 100 g of dry matter) and water-and oil-holding capacities. The removal of chlorophyll increased the oil-holding capacity (from 59.7% to 94.6%), which was much higher than in the coarse ingredient (34%), but has a deleterious effect reducing the antioxidant capacity and the inulin content. The ingredients also showed high dietary fibre (22.5-33%), inulin (9-16%) and mineral (7.5-7.8%) contents. Although the ingredient with chlorophyll and smaller particle size had the higher antioxidant capacity, the removal of chlorophyll improved the technological properties to be used as food ingredient without affecting significantly to the nutritional value.
The use of nutraceuticals or functional ingredients is increasingly widespread in human food; their use is also widespread in animal feed. These natural compounds generally come from plant materials and comprise a wide range of substances of a very diverse chemical nature. In animals, these compounds, so-called phytogenics, are used to obtain improvements in feed production/stability and also as functional components with repercussions on animal health. Along with polyphenols, isoprenoid compounds represent a family of substances with wide applications in therapy and pet nutrition. Essential oils (EOs) are a group of complex substances with fat-soluble nature that are widely used. Melatonin is an indolic amine present in all living with amphiphilic nature. In this work, we present a review of the most relevant phytogenics (polyphenol, isoprenoid, and alkaloid compounds), their characteristics, and possible uses as nutraceuticals in dogs, with special emphasis on EOs and their regulatory aspects, applied in foods and topically. Additionally, a presentation of the importance of the use of melatonin in dogs is developed, giving physiological and practical aspects about its use in dog feeding and also in topical application, with examples and future projections. This review points to the combination of EOs and melatonin in food supplements and in the topical application as an innovative product and shows excellent perspectives aimed at addressing dysfunctions in pets, such as the treatment of stress and anxiety, sleep disorders, alopecia, and hair growth problems, among others.
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