Matricaria chamomilla L. is a famous medicinal plant distributed worldwide. It is widely used in traditional medicine to treat all kinds of diseases, including infections, neuropsychiatric, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and liver disorders. It is also used as a sedative, antispasmodic, antiseptic, and antiemetic. In this review, reports on M. chamomilla taxonomy, botanical and ecology description, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, biological and pharmacological properties, possible application in different industries, and encapsulation were critically gathered and summarized. Scientific search engines such as Web of Science, PubMed, Wiley Online, SpringerLink, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Google Scholar were used to gather data on M. chamomilla. The phytochemistry composition of essential oils and extracts of M. chamomilla has been widely analyzed, showing that the plant contains over 120 constituents. Essential oils are generally composed of terpenoids, such as α-bisabolol and its oxides A and B, bisabolone oxide A, chamazulene, and β-farnesene, among other compounds. On the other hand, M. chamomilla extracts were dominated by phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, and coumarins. In addition, M. chamomilla demonstrated several biological properties such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-parasitic, insecticidal, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory effects. These activities allow the application of M. chamomilla in the medicinal and veterinary field, food preservation, phytosanitary control, and as a surfactant and anti-corrosive agent. Finally, the encapsulation of M. chamomilla essential oils or extracts allows the enhancement of its biological activities and improvement of its applications. According to the findings, the pharmacological activities of M. chamomilla confirm its traditional uses. Indeed, M. chamomilla essential oils and extracts showed interesting antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant, anti-pyretic, anti-allergic, and analgesic activities. Moreover, the most important application of M. chamomilla was in the medicinal field on animals and humans.
Many of the chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of cancer are molecules identified and isolated from plants or their synthetic derivatives. This work aimed to identify the bioactive compounds using LC-MS and GC-MS and to evaluate the anticancer activity of the methanolic extracts of roots, stems, leaves, and flowers from Cladanthus mixtus. The anticancer activity was evaluated in vitro against two cancer cell lines: human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and human prostate carcinoma (PC-3), using the MTT assay and microscopic observation. A human normal lung fibroblast (MRC-5) was included to determine the extract’s safety for non-tumoral cells. The chemical composition results by LC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 24 phenolic compounds. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis allowed the identification of many biomolecules belonging to terpenoids, esters, alcohols, alkanes, fatty acids, organic acids, benzenes, phenols, ketones, carbonyls, amines, sterols, and other groups. The findings suggest that the majority of C. mixtus extracts have antiproliferative activity against two cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and PC-3, and one non-tumoral cell line, MRC-5. The activity was dose-dependent, and the highest effect was obtained with leaf extract in the two cancer cell lines. Moreover, these extracts demonstrated an acceptable toxicological profile against normal cells. Overall, C. mixtus extracts revealed promising antitumor properties provided by their phytochemical composition.
The present study reports an efficient protocol for in vitro propagation of Thymus vulgaris L., an aromatic and medicinal plant in Morocco. Initially, we performed in vitro multiplication of Thymus vulgaris explants existing in the laboratory and obtained from micropropagation by shoot tip culture. Afterwards, we have evaluated the effect of six macronutrients. After that, seven cytokinins (Kin, BAP, 2iP, DPU, Adenine, Zeatine and TDZ) in three different concentrations (0.46, 0.93, 2.32 µM) have been evaluated to optimize cultures multiplication and elongation. Moreover, the effect of three auxins (IAA, IBA and NAA) at 0.57 µM, combined to 4 cytokinins (Kin, BAP, DPU and Ad.) at 0.46 μM, on shoot rooting has been studied. Thereby, MS medium has been proved the most favorable for plantlets growing. Also, we found that the addition of certain cytokinins, specifically 0.46 Kin, 0.46 and 0.93 BAP, 0.46 2iP, 0.46 DPU, 0.46 Ad. and 0.46 Zeat., ensures better multiplication and growth of vitroplants. In addition, multiplication and rooting of cultures were well optimized after addition 0.46 Kin + 0.57 IAA or NAA, 0.46 DPU + 0.57 IBA and 0.46 Ad. + 0.57 IBA combinations to the culture medium. Lastly, plantlets with roots were successfully acclimatized to ex-vitro conditions and these latter served as a source to establish in vitro culture again.
Melatonin dietary supplements are widely consumed worldwide, with developed countries as the largest consumers, with an estimated annual growth rate of approximately 10% until 2027, mainly in developing countries. The wide use of melatonin against sleep disorders and particular problems, such as jet lag, has been added to other applications, such as anti-aging, anti-stress, immune system activation, anticancer, and others, which have triggered its use, normally without a prescription. The chemical industry currently covers 100% of the needs of the melatonin market. Motivated by sectors with more natural consumption habits, a few years ago, the possibility of obtaining melatonin from plants, called phytomelatonin, arose. More recently, the pharmaceutical industry has developed genetically modified microorganisms whose ability to produce biological melatonin in bioreactors has been enhanced. This paper reviews the aspects of the chemical and biological synthesis of melatonin for human consumption, mainly as dietary supplements. The pros and cons of obtaining melatonin from microorganisms and phytomelatonin from plants and algae are analyzed, as well as the advantages of natural melatonin, avoiding unwanted chemical by-products from the chemical synthesis of melatonin. Finally, the economic and quality aspects of these new products, some of which are already marketed, are analyzed.
Melatonin is a multifunctional and ubiquitous molecule. In animals, melatonin is a hormone that is involved in a wide range of physiological activities and is also an excellent antioxidant. In plants, it has been considered a master regulator of multiple physiological processes as well as of hormonal homeostasis. Likewise, it is known for its role as a protective biomolecule and activator of tolerance and resistance against biotic and abiotic stress in plants. Since infections by pathogens such as bacteria, fungi and viruses in crops result in large economic losses, interest has been aroused in determining whether melatonin plays a relevant role in plant defense systems against pathogens in general, and against viruses in particular. Currently, several strategies have been applied to combat infection by pathogens, one of them is the use of eco-friendly chemical compounds that induce systemic resistance. Few studies have addressed the use of melatonin as a biocontrol agent for plant diseases caused by viruses. Exogenous melatonin treatments have been used to reduce the incidence of several virus diseases, reducing symptoms, virus titer, and even eradicating the proliferation of viruses such as Tobacco Mosaic Virus, Apple Stem Grooving Virus, Rice Stripe Virus and Alfalfa Mosaic Virus in tomato, apple, rice and eggplant, respectively. The possibilities of using melatonin as a possible natural virus biocontrol agent are discussed.
The purpose of this work was to investigate, for the first time to our knowledge, the chemical composition and bioactivity of methanolic extracts (roots, stems, leaves, and flowers) from Cladanthus mixtus (L.) Chevall. that grows wild in northern Morocco (the Tangier-Tetouan-Al Hoceima region). The phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined by spectrophotometer methods, and the composition of derivatized methanolic extracts from C. mixtus using N-O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant activity was carried out by applying the 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) tests. The micro-dilution technique was chosen to investigate the antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts against two bacterial strains and three fungal species. The results showed that the values of total phenolic and flavonoid contents were found to be higher in flower extracts (30.55 ± 0.85 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of dried weight (DW) and 26.00 ±1.34 mg of quercetin equivalents (QE)/g DW, respectively). Other groups of chemical compounds were revealed by GC-MS, such as carbohydrates (27.25–64.87%), fatty acids (1.58–9.08%), organic acids (11.81–18.82%), and amino acids (1.26–7.10%). Root and flower methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant activity using ABTS (39.49 mg of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW) and DPPH (36.23 mg TE/g DW), respectively. A positive correlation between antioxidant activity and polyphenol and flavonoid amounts was found. Antibacterial tests showed that the best activity was presented by the leaf extract against Staphylococcus aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) = 20 mg/mL) and Escherichia coli (MIC of 30 mg/mL and MBC of 35 mg/mL). S. aureus was more sensitive to the extracts compared to E. coli. All extracts showed antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, with the best efficacy reported by the flower and leaf extracts (MIC = 1.25 mg/mL and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) = 2.5 mg/mL). In general, extracts of C. mixtus appeared less effective against Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus.
The use of nutraceuticals or functional ingredients is increasingly widespread in human food; their use is also widespread in animal feed. These natural compounds generally come from plant materials and comprise a wide range of substances of a very diverse chemical nature. In animals, these compounds, so-called phytogenics, are used to obtain improvements in feed production/stability and also as functional components with repercussions on animal health. Along with polyphenols, isoprenoid compounds represent a family of substances with wide applications in therapy and pet nutrition. Essential oils (EOs) are a group of complex substances with fat-soluble nature that are widely used. Melatonin is an indolic amine present in all living with amphiphilic nature. In this work, we present a review of the most relevant phytogenics (polyphenol, isoprenoid, and alkaloid compounds), their characteristics, and possible uses as nutraceuticals in dogs, with special emphasis on EOs and their regulatory aspects, applied in foods and topically. Additionally, a presentation of the importance of the use of melatonin in dogs is developed, giving physiological and practical aspects about its use in dog feeding and also in topical application, with examples and future projections. This review points to the combination of EOs and melatonin in food supplements and in the topical application as an innovative product and shows excellent perspectives aimed at addressing dysfunctions in pets, such as the treatment of stress and anxiety, sleep disorders, alopecia, and hair growth problems, among others.
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