The prevalence of physical inactivity is high among the studied teenagers. Youths with lower economical levels are more active comparing with those with higher economical standards. Moreover, the association between physical activity and economical condition is influenced by physical activity domain that was investigated.
BackgroundFigure rating scales were developed as a tool to determine body dissatisfaction in women, men, and children. However, it lacks in the literature the validation of the scale for body silhouettes previously adapted. We aimed to obtain evidence for construct validity of a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents.MethodsThe study was carried out with adolescent students attending three public schools in an urban region of the municipality of Florianopolis in the State of Santa Catarina (SC). The sample comprised 232 10-19-year-old students, 106 of whom are boys and 126 girls, from the 5th "series" (i.e. year) of Primary School to the 3rd year of Secondary School. Data-gathering involved the application of an instrument containing 8 body figure drawings representing a range of children's and adolescents' body shapes, ranging from very slim (contour 1) to obese (contour 8). Weights and heights were also collected, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated later. BMI was analyzed as a continuous variable, using z-scores, and as a dichotomous categorical variable, representing a diagnosis of nutritional status (normal and overweight including obesity).ResultsResults showed that both males and females with larger BMI z-scores chose larger body contours. Girls with higher BMI z-scores also show higher values of body image dissatisfaction.ConclusionWe provided the first evidence of validity for a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents.
Crianças e adolescentes apresentam, em uma determinada carga, menores concentrações de lactato [la] do que os adultos; especula-se que essas diferenças são ligadas a aspectos maturacionais. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência da maturação sexual, idade cronológica (I) e índices de crescimento (IC - massa corporal, estatura e somatório de dobras cutâneas subescapular e tricipital) na velocidade do limiar de lactato na concentração fixa de lactato ([la]) de 2,5mmol.l-1 (V2,5) e na corrida de 20 minutos (V20). Trinta e três meninos participantes de escolas de esportes foram submetidos a: 1) avaliação antropométrica e avaliação da maturação sexual através dos índices de Tanner (maturação sexual de órgãos genitais e maturação sexual de pêlos púbicos); 2) teste progressivo descontínuo de 3 x 800m (pista de atletismo) para determinar V2,5; e 3) corrida de 20 minutos para determinar a V20 e a [la] final. Não foi encontrada associação entre maturação sexual, idade cronológica e indicadores de crescimento com V2,5. Somente a estatura se mostrou associada com V20. Assim, outras variáveis de desempenho, fisiológicas ou biomecânicas, podem influenciar mais no limiar de lactato e na corrida de 20 minutos, do que as variáveis de crescimento durante a adolescência.
O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a produção científica brasileira sobre o Atletismo entre 1999 e 2013. Foram identificados 162 artigos, e selecionados 55 estudos que abordaram o Atletismo como temática principal do estudo. Destes, 43 artigos (78,2%) foram relacionados com a Biodinâmica do Movimento Humano e 12 (21,8%) com a Pedagogia do Movimento. Analisando os estudos selecionados (caraterização a posteriori das análises), 30,9% (17) correspondiam à pesquisas na área de fisiologia do exercício, 20% (11) a lesões no esporte, 10% (6) sobre biomecânica, 7,3% (4) a psicologia do esporte e 7,3% (4) a nutrição esportiva. As áreas com menos pesquisas foram o treinamento esportivo, a iniciação esportiva e a história/sociologia do esporte com 5,5% (3) cada uma. A pedagogia do esporte e do doping, ficaram com a menor proporção de estudos, sendo 3,6% (2) cada uma. Seis estudos não apresentavam uma única modalidade como foco central na investigação, outros 15 enfocaram corridas de fundo e meio-fundo, 8 em corridas de rua e maratonas, 7 em corridas de velocidade, 6 em atletismo paralímpico e, com menor percentual, as provas de salto horizontal, arremessos e lançamentos e o atletismo escolar que tiveram 1 estudo cada. Conclui-se que é importante considerar os critérios de avaliação dos cursos de Pós-Graduação adotados pela CAPES, pois no modo atual o sistema parece limitar a investigação na área da Pedagogia do Movimento. Necessita-se também qualificar a pesquisa sobre o Atletismo no Brasil e desenvolver pesquisas com melhor aporte metodológico (estudos longitudinais, de intervenção, de validação de métodos, de revisão de literatura e qualitativos) bem como melhorar a amostragem e diversificar as investigações em diferentes provas do Atletismo.
Objective: To estimate the prevalence and identify associated factors of overweight in adolescents. Methods: a cross-sectional study design was employed. 426 adolescents, 10 to 18 years old, from the city of Salvador, northeast region of Brazil were selected in a three stage stratified random sampling scheme. Data on the frequency of food consumption and physical activity, sexual maturation, anthropometric measurements and covariates were collected. The nutritional status was classified with cutoff points based on body mass index mean values from Brazilian children and adolescents, while the secondary sexual characteristics were selfreported. The adolescents who performed more than 300 minutes of moderate physical activity per week were considered physically active. Ethnicity was classified by skin color and physical attributes. Results: Total prevalence of overweight was of 14.3%. Early sexual maturation (Prevalence Rate -/PR/_adjusted =2.12, /CI95%/=1.10-4.05) and physical inactivity (/PR/_adjusted =1.85, /CI95%/=1.01-3.41), adjusted for age (PR/adjusted =1.77, /CI0.97%/=3.24) were independently associated with overweight in adolescents from Salvador, Bahia. Conclusions: overweight was high among adolescents in Salvador. Public prevention policies should be adopted in order to early prevent overweight through improved encouragement to continuous and systematic practice of physical activity at population level.
BackgroundThe aim of this study was to identify dietary strategies for physically active individuals with muscle dysmorphia based on a systematic literature review.MethodReferences were included if the study population consisted of adults over 18 years old who were physically active in fitness centers. We identified reports through an electronic search ofScielo, Lilacs and Medline using the following keywords: muscle dysmorphia, vigorexia, distorted body image, and exercise. We found eight articles in Scielo, 17 in Medline and 12 in Lilacs. Among the total number of 37 articles, only 17 were eligible for inclusion in this review.ResultsThe results indicated that the feeding strategies used by physically active individuals with muscle dysmorphia did not include planning or the supervision of a nutritionist. Diet included high protein and low fat foods and the ingestion of dietary and ergogenic supplements to reduce weight.ConclusionPhysically active subjects with muscle dysmorphia could benefit from the help of nutritional professionals to evaluate energy estimation, guide the diet and its distribution in macronutrient and consider the principle of nutrition to functional recovery of the digestive process, promote liver detoxification, balance and guide to organic adequate intake of supplemental nutrients and other substances.
The nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is related to morbidity and mortality and its monitoring is important in the maintenance of the health status. This is a cross-sectional study carried out in Brazilian National Health System in the Municipality of São Paulo. It describes anthropometrical characteristics: weight and height; indices of weight for height (W/H), height for age (H/A), body mass index for age (BMI/A) and Z score for height and weight. The study includes 772 participants from all ages: children, adolescents, adults and elderly. The graphical analysis shows that in under-5s and in the 5 to 19 years old group, the W/H, the H/A and the BMI/A curves are similar to the reference population with an exception in the H/A for 5 to 19 years old group which is left-shifted (mean Z = -0.66). In the case of adults, graphics for the study population show median weight apparently lower than in the reference population for most age groups in the case of men, and when age is greater in women. The proportion of people over 20 years old with AIDS on anti-retroviral therapy is lower when coinfection is present (p < 0.001). The findings of the study showed that, for children and adolescents with HIV/AIDS, the average weight and height are lower than the values for non infected population. For adults and elderly, the weight average is lower than the reference population with a worsening among coinfected patients. This underscores the need to direct more effort in nutritional actions thus helping enhance the health status of this group.
Introduction: Assessment of overweight and obesity in populations has still been based on the body mass index, which is considered the universal indicator of adiposity. Objective: To analyze 7-10 year-old schoolchildren body fat distribution by building percentiles reference of skinfold thickness, using lMS parameters. Method: Data were taken from a representative sample of 7-10-year-old schoolchildren attending public and private schools that participated in a comprehensive research study conducted in 2002, in the city of Florianopolis (Santa Catarina, Brazil), and composed of 2,918 children. In this study, the anthropometric data used were height, subscapular, suprailiac, triciptal and medial calf skinfolds. The lMS method, which propitiates normalizing data with asymmetric distribution, was used to analyze and compare skinfold thickness patterns by sex and age group. results: Both sexes presented higher values of subcutaneous fat in the triceps and calf regions; nevertheless, in male subjects theses values were lower than in females and with low increment along the age group investigated. The skinfold with the highest increment in median values was the suprailiac for females, which reached values close to those of the triciptal skinfold at 10 yr old. Conclusions: The lMS method propitiates analysis of the skinfolds thickness, which is important to perform analyses of the evolution of the body fat and the nutritional status of children.
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