caudal fin, and abnormal formation of pterigiophores was observed in the fish fed this level of VA. These results suggest that VA seems to be effective in preventing the abnormal coloration caused by Tien-tsin Artemia, but the excess amount of this vitamin can exert ill effects on normal growth of flounder.
New cultured ornamental fish namely Lake Kurumoi rainbowfish Melanotaenia parva (Allen) run into reduced of colour performances when reared in the aquaria, consequently, fish feed must be added with carotenoids as a pigment source. The aim of this study was to evaluate the digestibility, growth and pigmentation of astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and lutein in diet. Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of dry matter, lipid, protein, carotenoids, growth and pigmentation were studied in twenty fish after 14 and 56 days of observation. The single‐dose supplementation of 100 mg/kg of astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, or lutein diets on fish was fed by apparent satiation. The basal diet without carotenoids was used as control. The result showed that the ADC of carotenoids of test diets was higher compared to control. Fish fed astaxanthin diet had higher survival rate (96.67 ± 2.89%), colour measurements of lightness (57.60 ± 7.46%), a*‐values (4.66 ± 1.20), total carotenoids content in skin (33.75 ± 5.02 mg/kg) and muscle (2.16 ± 0.74 mg/kg). Astaxanthin also increased the growth after 14 days (2.00% ± 0.19%/days) but there was no significantly different at the end of experiment. The yellowish‐orange colour performance was more rapidly achieved by fish fed astaxanthin diet after 28 days experimentation. These values suggested that dietary carotenoids were required and astaxanthin diet was superior to other diets for skin pigmentation of Lake Kurumoi rainbowfish.
<p class="NoParagraphStyle"><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p><p class="NoParagraphStyle"><strong> </strong></p><p class="NoParagraphStyle">This study aimed to evaluate the effects of cinnamon <em>Cinnamomum burmannii</em> leaves extract addition with different doses in diet for the lipid muscle content of catfish <em>Pangsianodon hypophthalmus</em>. The cinnamon leaves extract was mixed in to the diet with five doses i.e: 0 (control); 0.5; 1; 2; and 4 g/kg diet. Catfish (7.43±0.01 g) were reared in 15 aquariums (160 L volume) with density of 30 fishes in each aquarium for 60 days. Fish were fed until apparent satiation three times daily at 08.00, 12.00, 16.00 WIB. The addition of cinnamon leaves extract at 1 g/kg of diet showed the optimal dose because it could lower flesh fat content, cholesterol, and triglycerides of catfish.</p><p class="NoParagraphStyle"> </p><p class="NoParagraphStyle">Keywords: <em>Pangasianodon hypopthalmus</em>,<em> Cinnamomum burmannii</em>, fat, flesh</p><p class="NoParagraphStyle"> </p><p class="NoParagraphStyle"> </p><p class="NoParagraphStyle"><strong>ABSTRAK</strong><strong></strong></p><p class="NoParagraphStyle"><strong> </strong></p><p class="NoParagraphStyle">Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh penambahan ekstrak daun kayu manis Cinnamomum burmannii dengan dosis berbeda pada pakan terhadap kandungan lemak daging ikan patin Pangsianodon hypopthalmus. Ekstrak daun kayu manis dicampurkan ke dalam pakan dengan lima dosis yaitu: 0 (kontrol); 0,5; 1; 2; dan 4 g/kg pakan. Ikan patin (7,43±0,01 g) dipelihara dalam 15 akuarium (volume 160 L) dengan kepadatan 30 ekor/akurium selama 60 hari. Ikan diberi pakan secara <em>at satiation</em> sebanyak tiga kali sehari pada pukul 08.00, 12.00, dan 16.00 WIB. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan ekstrak daun kayu manis sebanyak 1 g/kg pakan memberikan hasil yang optimal karena dapat menurunkan kandungan lemak daging, kolesterol, dan trigliserida ikan patin.</p><p class="NoParagraphStyle"> </p><p class="NoParagraphStyle">Kata kunci: <em>Pangasianodon hypopthalmus</em>,<em> Cinnamomum burmannii</em>,<em> </em>lemak, daging</p><p> </p>
This study was conducted to evaluate bioefficacy of dietary chromium picolinate and chromium yeast on growth performance and blood biochemical in red tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus). Seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental feeds were prepared (approximately 29% and 3,900 kcal/kg). These diets were supplemented with different sources and levels of dietary chromium: 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg of Cr picolinate and 2 and 4 mg/kg of Cr yeast and one control group, all groups were arranged triplicate. After a 60-day feeding experiment, specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency ratio (FER) and feed utilization were observed. Blood biochemistry consisted of serum total protein, glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were measured.Chromium distribution in several organs and glucose tolerant test were measured.The result shows that CrPic of 1 mg/kg and CrYst of 2 mg/kg produced the best SGR (2.91 AE 0.03% and 2.91 AE 0.04%), improved insulin sensitivity (7.30 AE 2.96 and 1.70 AE 0.78 lIU/ml) and increased glucose utilization. CrYst supplementation of 2 mg/kg feed resulted in the highest FER (0.79 AE 0.01) and the lowest triglycerides (126.24 AE 12.36 mg/dl). In conclusion, dietary chromium picolinate at 1 mg/ kg or chromium yeast at 2 mg/kg significantly improved bioefficacy on growth performance and blood biochemicals in red tilapia.
Color abnormality is the main problem that occurs in hatchery-cultured flounder. Dietary vitamin A (VA) seems to have some effects in reducing the occurrence of color ab normality,1-3) so this vitamin is usually given through the live foods for larval flounder in mass seedling production in Japan. However, an excessive concentration of VA in Artemia adversely affected the development of larval flounder by compressing their vertebrae.4,5) This vertebral deformity was found to occur when larvae were exposed to high dosages of VA during the period of notochord seg mentation.5) In addition to fish vertebrae, the skeleton of the caudal frame also develops during the larval period.) This paper reports the effect of different levels of VA in Ar temia nauplii on the caudal skeleton formation of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.
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