The circulating level of cortisol is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis through a neuroendocrine feedback circuit. This circuit can be activated by physiological stimuli such as stress, diseases, and exercise. High levels of serum cortisol hormone normally occur as a byproduct of aging, and can cause several types of damage to the organism and exacerbate immunosenescence. There is a great deal of variability in the cortisol response with regard to type, intensity, volume, and frequency of exercise. However, these relationships have been extensively studied with respect to the acute effects of exercise. Despite the well-known effects of acute exercise on cortisol response, it is unclear how it is affected by chronic exercise and the aging process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a review of studies that attempt to analyze the influence of chronic exercise on serum cortisol hormone in older people. In order to accomplish this goal, a review from 1970 to June 2012 period was performed using the following databases: Biological Abstracts, PsycINFO, PubMed/Medline, and the Web of Science. Eight articles met the criteria used in this study. Based on the included articles, chronic exercise may influence the serum levels of cortisol levels in older people. Despite this evidence, these results may not be generalized to the entire population of older people, given the few number of studies and especially because the studies showed diversity in variables and methodologies. Danilla Icassatti Corazza, conception and design of the study and acquisition of data. Émerson Sebastião, Flavia Gomes de Melo Coelho and Elizabeth Teodorov, revising it critically for important intellectual content. Renata Valle Pedroso and Carla Andreza Almeida Andreatto, drafting the article. Sebastião Gobbi and Ruth Ferreira Santos-Galduróz, conception and design of the study and revising it critically for important intellectual content.
The P300 plays a key role as a method for monitoring and evaluating dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. Objective : The goal of this study was to search for articles which analyzed P300 latency and amplitude values in Alzheimer's disease. Methods : We searched in the following databases: Web of Science, Pub Med, Psyc Info, Medline, Biological Abstracts and Scielo using the following keywords: speed of information processing, processing speed, information processing, aged, older, elderly, older people, alzheimer dementia, alzheimer disease, Alzheimer and cross-references of selected articles. Results : We found eight studies matching the inclusion criteria. These studies showed that there is a consensus on a P300 latency increase of elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease compared with subjects without the disease. However, it appears that, with respect to the P300 amplitude, there is still no consensus; however, it may be related to different methodological variables adopted in the reviewed studies. Conclusion : There is a need to standardize the variables involved in P300 measurement for senior citizens with Alzheimer's disease in order to be able to compare P300 latency and amplitude values for this population.
The aim of this study was analyze the effects of Square-Stepping Exercise (SSE) on depressive symptoms, balance and functional mobility in older adults. Participants were distributed into two groups: Trained Group (TG), who performed a 16-week intervention with SSE and Control Group (CG), who performed only evaluations. The Berg Balance Scale and Time Up and Go Test (TUG) constituted the evaluation protocol to verify balance and functional mobility. Geriatric Depression Scale-short form (GDS-15) was applied for measure depressive symptoms. Evaluations were realized pre and post 16-week. Significant improvements were observed in the TG with the maintenance of GDS-15 scores and on the time to perform the TUG test which reflects better functional mobility than the CG. This could lead to conclude that the SSE is an important tool for improve balance, prevent falls and decrease depression symptoms. Resumo-"Efeitosdo Square-Stepping Exercise (SSE) no equilíbrio e sintomas depressivos de idosos." O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar os efeitos do Square-Stepping Exercise (SSE) nos sintomas depressivos, equilíbrio e mobilidade funcional de idosos. Os participantes foram distribuídos em dois grupos: Grupo Treinamento (TG), que realizou 16 semanas de intervenção com o SSE e Grupo Controle (CG), que penas respondeu as avaliações. A Escala de Equilíbrio de Berg e o Time Up and Go Test (TUG) constituíram o protocolo de avaliação, e verificaram o equilíbrio e a mobilidade funcional. A Escala Geriátrica de Depressão curta (GDS-15) foi aplicada para mensurar os sintomas depressivos. Avaliações Foram realizadas pré e após 16 semanas. Resultados significativos foram observados no TG, como a manutenção do escore da GDS-15 e melhora do tempo para realizar o TUG, o que reflete em uma mobilidade funcional melhor que no CG. Podemos concluir que o SSE é uma importante ferramenta para promover equilíbrio, prevenir que das e diminuir os sintomas depressivos. Palavras-chave: equilíbrio, mobilidade, sintomas depressivos, envelhecimentoResumen-"Efectos del Square-Stepping Exercise (SSE) en equilibrio y síntomas depresivos en adultos mayores." El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los efectos del SSE (Square-Stepping Exercise) en los síntomas depresivos, equilibrio y movilidad funcional de ancianos. Los participantes fueron divididos en dos grupos: Grupo de Entrenamiento (TG), que celebró 16 semanas de intervención con SSE y Grupo Control (GC), que respondió evaluaciones plumas. El rango de equilibrio de Berg Balance de el Time Up nd Go Test (TUG) constituyeron el protocolo de evaluación, y se encontró el equilibrio y la movilidad funcional. La Escala de Depresión Geriátrica breve (GDS-15) se utilizó para medir los síntomas depresivos. Las evaluaciones se realizaron antes y después de 16 semanas. Los resultados significativos se observaron en TG, como el mantenimiento de la puntuación GDS-15 y la mejora de tiempo para realizar el TUG, que se refleja en una mejor movilidad funcional en CG. Podemos concluir que la ESS es una herramienta impo...
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a progressive degenerative disorder that negatively affects quality of life of patients and family members.Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the cognition, level of physical activity and functioning of elderly individuals with mild AD and those without dementia.Methods: The study comprised 24 elderly with mild AD (mean age = 76.9 ± 5.3 years) and 30 elderly without dementia (mean age = 74.1 ± 5.6 years). The following instruments were applied to evaluate cognitive functions: MMSE; Frontal Assessment Battery; Clock Drawing Test; Corsi Blocks, and Verbal Paired Associates. Event-related potential P300 was used to evaluate cognitive processing. The Modified Baecke Questionnaire For Older Adults was applied to evaluate the level of physical activity together with use of a pedometer for 7 consecutive days. For the evaluation of the functioning, the Direct Assessment of Functional Status-Revised scale and functional tests were used.Results: There was a significant difference between the groups in level of physical activity and functioning, except on the test evaluating flexibility.Conclusion: Elderly with AD had cognitive, functional and physical activity deficits which can manifest even in the early stages of the disease.
RESUMOObjetivos: Caracterizar idosos do Centro-Dia Geriátrico de Rio Claro (SP) de acordo com os sintomas depressivos e o prejuízo funcional e, ainda, verificar a relação entre sintomas depressivos e desempenho nas atividades instrumentais da vida diária. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, transversal, do qual participaram 36 idosos. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: anamnese, Escala Geriátrica de Depressão e Questionário de Atividades Instrumentais de Pfeffer. A análise dos dados ocorreu por meio da estatística descritiva e dos testes U de Mann-Whi tney e correlação de Spearman, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Houve maior presença de mulheres na amostra, que apresentou em média 77,02 anos de idade e 3,44 anos de estudo. A prevalência de sintomas depressivos e prejuízo funcional foi de 30,5% e 63,8%, respectivamente, sendo maior entre as mulheres. Não houve diferença significativa entre as variáveis analisadas em comparação aos gêneros e às faixas etárias. O teste de correlação de Spearman apresentou rho = 0,38 e p = 0,02, indicando correlação positiva, porém fraca, entre sintomas depressivos e prejuízo funcional. Conclusão: Conclui-se que há uma baixa relação entre as variáveis sintomas depressivos e prejuízo funcional, sendo necessários novos estudos para investigar outros fatores que podem estar relacionados a essas variáveis. ABSTRACTObjectives: To characterize the elderly in a Geriatric Day Center, of Rio Claro (SP), according to depressive symptoms and functional impairment and also verify the relationship between depressive symptoms and performance in instrumental activity of daily living. Methods: Descriptive study, cross-sectional, which involved 36 elderly. The instruments used were: interview, Geriatric Depression Scale and Pfeffer's Instrumental Activities Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and by the U Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's correlation test, with a significance level of 5%. Results: There was a greater presence of women in the sample, which showed a mean age of 77.02 years old and 3.44 years of study. The prevalence of depressive symptoms and functional impairment was 30.5% and 63.8%, respectively, being higher among women. There was no significant difference between the variables compared to the genders and age groups. The Spearman's correlation test showed a rho = 0.38, p = 0.02, indicating a positive correlation but weak correlation between depresCOMUniCAçãO BREvE
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