Canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis is a neglected zoonosis worldwide and is a leading cause of reproductive failure in dogs, often causing substantial economic losses in breeding kennels. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of B. canis infection in dogs of commercial breeding kennels located in São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 753 dogs (183 males and 570 females) from 38 commercial kennels were clinically examined, and blood samples were collected for brucellosis diagnosis through blood culture. The association between clinical manifestations suggestive of brucellosis and positive results through blood culture was determined. Of the 753 dogs tested, 166 (22.0%) had at least one clinical sign suggestive of brucellosis and 158 (20.9%) had positive blood cultures. Seventy-two dogs had positive blood culture and had at least one clinical sign suggestive of brucellosis, while 91 dogs showed at least one clinical manifestation suggestive of brucellosis although blood culture was negative. Of the 38 kennels, 16 (42.1%) had at least one positive dog. The prevalence of infection in each kennel varied from 3.8% to 62.6%. Abortion/stillbirth, failure to conceive and enlargement of lymph nodes were significantly associated with brucellosis in female. No association of clinical signs and positive results in blood culture was observed in males. None of the kennels has been carrying out programmes to control brucellosis, and the sale of infected dogs was considered a common practice yielding risks to the public health, in view of the zoonotic potential of the infection.
BackgroundDiarrhea in piglets directly affects commercial swine production. The disease results from the interaction of pathogens with the host immune system and is also affected by management procedures. Several pathogenic agents such as Campylobacter spp., Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., group A rotavirus (RV-A), coronaviruses (transmissible gastroenteritis virus; porcine epidemic diarrhea virus), as well as nematode and protozoan parasites, can be associated with disease cases.ResultsAll bacterial, viral, protozoan, and parasitic agents here investigated, with the exception of Salmonella spp. as well as both coronaviruses, were detected in varying proportions
in piglet fecal samples, and positive animals were equally distributed between case and control groups. A statistically significant difference between case and control groups was found only for Cystoisospora suis (p = 0.034) and Eimeria spp. (p = 0.047). When co-infections were evaluated, a statistically significant difference was found only for C. perfringens β2 and C. suis (p = 0.014).ConclusionsThe presence of pathogens in piglets alone does not determine the occurrence of diarrhea episodes. Thus, the indiscriminate use of antibiotic and anthelminthic medication should be re-evaluated. This study also reinforces the importance of laboratory diagnosis and correct interpretation of results as well as the relevance of control and prophylactic measures.
Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were assayed in sera of 63 cats and 80 pigs from 71 farms located at Rondônia State, Western Amazon, Brazil, by the modified agglutination test (MAT) and the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Antibodies (MAT > or = 1: 25) were found in 55 of 63 cats (87.3%) with titers of 1:25 in 2, 1:50 in 2, 1:100 in 7, 1:200 in 1, 1:400 in 2, 1:800 in 9, 1:1,600 in 6, and 1:3,200 or higher in 26 cats. By IFAT, antibodies were found in 55 cats (87.3%) with titers of 1:25 in 2, 1:50 in 1, 1:100 in 4, 1:200 in 4, 1: 400 in 1, 1:800 in 13, 1:1,600 in 12, and 1:3,200 or higher in 18 cats. In pig sera, by MAT, antibodies were found in 30 of 80 pigs (37.5%) with titers of 1:25 in 2, 1:50 in 3, 1:100 in 2, 1:200 in 8, 1:400 in 3, 1:800 in 5, 1:1,600 in 3, and 1:3,200 or higher in 4 pigs. By using the IFAT (titers > or = 1:64), antibodies were found in 35 (43.7%) pigs. The ingestion of undercooked tissues of infected pigs can be a source of T. gondii infection for humans and cats. However, the high seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats from the Amazon seems most likely to be indicative of high contamination of the environment by oocysts.
We evaluated the presence of Rickettsia infection among fleas collected on domestic dogs in two Guarani Indian communities in the suburban area of São Paulo Municipality, Brazil. A total of 114 Ctenocephalides felis felis and 47 Ctenocephalides canis were collected from 40 dogs. A total of 41 C. felis felis (36.0%) and 9 C. canis (19.1%) fleas yielded expected bands by PCR, which were all shown by DNA sequencing to be indentical to the corresponding sequence of a fragment of the Rickettsia felis gltA gene deposited in GenBank. The overall prevalence of R. felis was 31.0% (49/161).
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