Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is strongly associated with obesity. The adipose tissue secretes bioactive adipokines leading to low grade inflammation, amplified by oxidative stress, which promotes the formation of advanced glycation end products and eventually leads to dyslipidemia and vascular complications. The aim of this study was to correlate anthropometric, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in newly diagnosed (ND) T2DM patients and to investigate the role of oxidative stress in T2DM associated with obesity. A group of 115 ND- T2DM patients was compared to a group of 32 healthy subjects in terms of clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters. ND-T2DM patients had significantly lower adiponectin, glutathione (GSH) and gluthatione peroxidase (GPx) and elevated insulin, proinsulin, HOMA-IR index, proinsulin/insulin (P/I) and proinsulin/adiponectin (P/A) ratio, fructosamine, and total oxidant status (TOS). The total body fat mass was positively correlated with total oxidant status (TOS). Positive correlations were found between TOS and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and between TOS and glycaemia. Negative correlations were identified between: GPx and glycaemia, GPx and HbA1c, and also between GSH and fructosamine. The total antioxidant status was negatively correlated with the respiratory burst. The identified correlations suggest the existence of a complex interplay between diabetes, obesity and oxidative stress.
In vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is a novel imaging technique that provides noninvasive, morphological characterization of skin structures with a resolution that is very close to that of light microscopy. Moreover, as it allows repeated imaging of the same skin area at different time-points, it is an excellent method for monitoring disease course, response to treatment or specific stimuli and a path to study dynamic phenomena in real-time. To date, two different variants of in vivo CLSM have been authorized in dermatological field, namely the reflectance confocal microscopy predominantly for clinical diagnosis and the fluorescence confocal microscopy mainly for research purposes. This study describes the principles of in vivo CLSM technique, its role in the diagnosis and monitoring of inflammatory skin diseases, as well as some promising research directions to study the dynamics of skin inflammation using this method. In vivo CLSM evaluation of inflammatory dermatoses and of the skin inflammatory component in various diseases has an undoubted potential with broad applications ranging from clinical, morphological to experimental, functional studies involving the skin.
Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is a modern imaging technique that enables the in vivo or ex vivo characterization of skin lesions located in the epidermis and superficial dermis with a high quasi-microscopic resolution. Currently, it is considered to be the most promising imaging tool for the evaluation of superficial skin tumors. The in vivo mode adds the advantage of noninvasive, dynamic, in real-time assessment of the tumor associated vasculature and inflammation. It offers the possibility to repeatedly examine the same skin area without causing any damage and to monitor disease progression and treatment outcome. Furthermore, this novel technology allows the evaluation of the entire lesion and can be used to guide biopsies and to define tumor margins before surgical excision or other invasive therapies. CLSM diagnostic features may differentiate between the various histologic subtypes of skin tumors and therefore helps in choosing the best therapeutic approach. In this study, we present the CLSM characteristic features of the most common melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin tumors, as well as future possible CLSM applications in the study of experimental skin tumorigenesis on animal models.
Lower plasma total antioxidant activity and plasma antioxidant gap in scleroderma patients show that plasma antioxidant defense is deficient in scleroderma patients. As previous studies on this issue are controversial, the decreased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity found in the patients in this study needs further investigation.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the caused disease-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has affected so far >6,000,000 people worldwide, with variable grades of severity, and has already inflicted >350,000 deaths. SARS-CoV-2 infection seems severely affected by background diseases such as diabetes mellitus and its related complications, that seem to be favoring the most severe manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 and, therefore, require special attention in clinical care units. The present literature review focus on addressing several hypotheses explaining why diabetic patients could develop multi-organ failure in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infections. Undoubtedly, as diabetes related complications are present it is expected to emphasize the severity of the COVID-19. Dermatological complications can occur and worsen in diabetic patients, and diseases such as acanthosis nigricans and psoriasis are prone to more severe manifestations of COVID-19. Approaches to treat SARS-CoV-2 infected patients, based on different solutions i.e. plasma therapy, use of antiviral compounds, development of vaccines or new therapeutic agents are ongoing.
Background/Aims: The antiatherosclerotic enzyme paraoxonase (PON1) is affected by disease and lifestyle. We investigated the impact of diet in diabetic foot patients from 2 European countries. Methods: Dietary intake and serum PON1 activity, using as substrate paraoxon (paraoxonase) or phenylacetate (arylesterase), were assessed in patients from Bucharest (n = 40) and Antwerp (n = 30) and in 34 healthy controls. Results: The diabetic patients had lower paraoxonase and arylesterase activities than the controls. Arylesterase was lowest in the Bucharest patients, 116 ± 42 U/ml, versus 141 ± 43 and 184 ± 49 U/ml in the Antwerp patients and controls, respectively (p < 0.0005). The Bucharest patients had worse glycemic control, higher blood pressure, lower HDL cholesterol and a diet richer in cholesterol and poorer in monounsaturated fats and fish. In contrast, their median intake of vitamins E and C, folic acid and flavonoids was higher, 82 mg (range: 4–259 mg), versus 28 mg (range: 5–169 mg) aglycone units in Antwerp (p = 0.005). Flavonoid intake predicted arylesterase independently of HDL cholesterol, region and sex (β = 0.27; p = 0.03), and patients with high intake achieved normal levels of arylesterase (30.1 ± 10.0 U/µmol in the highest versus 21.0 ± 8.2 U/µmol total cholesterol in the lowest tertile; p = 0.02). Conclusion: A flavonoid-rich diet is positively associated with PON1 arylesterase activity in diabetic foot patients.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between inflammatory markers and the preatherosclerotic marker - flow mediated dilation (FMD). Thirty obese children (10-16 years old) and twenty controls were involved. The plasma inflammatory markers: CRP, fibrinogen, leptin, TNF-a, IL-6 were measured. Ultrasounds were used for FMD measurement, chemiluminescence for monocyte respiratory burst (RB), ELISA for C peptide and spectrophotometry for usual parameters. In the obese children versus the lean ones, the FMD was lower (p[0.001), the plasma values for TNF-a were similar (1.68 pg/mL vs 1.54 pg/mL), while plasma IL-6 was increased (4.01 pg/mL vs. 2.02 pg/mL, p[0.05). These cytokines were negatively correlated with FMD (r=-0.42, p[0.05) and positively with RB (r=50, p[0.05). The FMD was negatively correlated (p[0.05) with the values for diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.47), waist circumference (r = -0.55), uric acid (r = -0.47) and atherosclerotic index (r = -0.37). In conclusion, in the obese children, inflammation, dyslipidaemia, blood pressure and oxidative stress act in a cluster reducing the elasticity of the vessel walls.
The brain and erythrocytes have similar susceptibility toward free radicals. Therefore, erythrocyte abnormalities might indicate the progression of the oxidative damage in Alzheimer disease (AD). The aim of this study was to investigate erythrocyte membrane stability and plasma antioxidant status in AD. Fasting blood samples (from 17 patients with AD and 14 healthy controls) were obtained and erythrocyte membrane stability against hydrogen peroxide and 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), serum Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), residual antioxidant activity or gap (GAP), erythrocyte catalase activity (CAT), erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, erythrocyte nonproteic thiols, and total plasma thiols were determined. A significant decrease in erythrocyte membrane stability to hydrogen peroxide was found in AD patients when compared with controls (P<0.05). On the contrary, CAT activity (P<0.0001) and total plasma thiols (P<0.05) were increased in patients with AD compared with controls. Our results indicate that the most satisfactory measurement of the oxidative stress level in the blood of patients with AD is the erythrocyte membrane stability to hydrogen peroxide. Reduced erythrocyte membrane stability may be further evaluated as a potential peripheral marker for oxidative damage in AD.
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